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Abstract

This paper presents the results of the floristical examinations performed in the units of a former secondary sedimentation pond system in Hungary. The outcome of analyses on the chromium content of the plants is discussed. Beside the chemical analyses, observations on the plants, the characterization of the ecological state of plant stands adapted to heavy metal load. Results of the elemental analysis for heavy metals revealed that none of the plants constituting the natural vegetation can be treated as hyperaccumulator plant. A green cover and the detoxification process of Cr(VI) by plants is suggested to be more important than the present extensive phytoextraction procedure. It can be stated that due to the disturbance our investigated area has diverse vegetation, in addition these plants can tolerate a high concentration of heavy metals, and they are able to take up them.

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Digital seed image analysis of seed remains of three ancient vinegrape samples excavated from 15th-century sites of Hungary was conducted and compared to those of ten currently grown old grapevine varieties. Digital seed images were analysed by Fovea Pro 4.0 computer program, with the final aim to identify the ancient grapevine cultivars with a final genotype reconstruction. Discriminant analysis, XY plot and histogram analyses revealed that seeds of two archaeological samples (11–13) show the closest similarity to the currently grown old vinegrape Vitis v. vinifera cv. ‘Mézesfehér’ (sample 6). Histogram analysis of seed parameter Equiv.Diam. (cm) of the archaeological seed sample ‘Budai vár’ (sample 11) showed diverse multimodal distribution compared to the unimodal distribution of cv. ‘Mézesfehér’ (sample 6), which results indicated that cv. ‘Mézesfehér’ went through a selection through the last five centuries, which narrowed the morphological diversity of this seed character.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors:
J. Csiky
,
L. Balogh
,
I. Dancza
,
F. Gyulai
,
G. Jakab
,
G. Király
,
É. Lehoczky
,
A. Mesterházy
,
P. Pósa
, and
T. Wirth

As part of the PADAPT project, the authors compiled the invasion biological database of the alien vascular flora of Hungary, which contains the nativeness, residence time, introduc- tion mode and invasion status of 878 alien or cryptogenic taxa. In the absence of adequate evidence, the classification of some species was only possible into uncertain, transitional cat- egories. The definitions of most categories are compatible with several international termi- nologies, but are primarily based on Central European traditions. Of the 560 taxa that have already been naturalised in Hungary, 85 are invasive, and 22 of them are transformer alien vascular plants. Only 5 of these transformers are included in the European list of Invasive Alien Species of Union concern (Ailanthus altissima, Asclepias syriaca, Elodea nuttallii, Heracleum mantegazzianum and H. sosnowskyi), which require uniform preventive interventions and treatments throughout the continent, while the rest of transformers in Hungary (e.g., Robinia pseudoacacia, Fallopia × bohemica and Solidago gigantea) draw attention to the unique, local and/ or regional invasion biological situation of the Pannonian Basin and Central Europe.

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