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A newly developed technique is presented to estimate site specific seismic failure frequencies of several types of storage tanks. Seismic failure is a failure event triggered by an earthquake leading to material release and serious damages. The present method is based on the convolution of site specific seismic hazard curves and component dependent fragility curves. Fragility curves are calculated with the help of probit coefficients originated from the analysis of historical data of earthquake damage. The calculation considers only the filling level, pressure and the damage state of storage tanks, and neglects the shape, volume, material and other parameters. Determination of seismic failure frequencies for storage tanks is done for three different Hungarian plant sites (Paks, Püspökszilágy, Csömör) using seismic hazard curves. In contrast of the simplifications the obtained frequency values represent a conservative estimation of failure frequencies triggered by earthquakes, and in comparison to international failure data the calculated values indicate significant frequencies. Therefore, the results imply that despite of the moderate seismic activity in Hungary, the effects of earthquakes on major-accident hazards should be considered in quantitative risk assessment.

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The extents of the protective effects of coating films on the surface of crystals were determined. Three different samples were made with different quantities of coating fluid (Sepifilm LP 010 in 10% aqueous solution). Since the atomizing rate was constant, the coating time increased in parallel with the volume of coating fluid applied. The direct measurement of film thickness and smoothness is very difficult, and therefore indirect methods were used. Dimenhydrinate was chosen as model drug; this is a heat-sensitive antihistamine with a low melting point. This temperature can be reached during the tableting process. The behaviour of samples on exposure to heat was examined by differential scanning calorimetry. The water uptakes of the samples were determined with an Enslin apparatus. Plasticity was studied with an instrumented tablet machine. These indirect methods (thermal conductivity, water uptake and plasticity measurements) revealed connections between the results of the various experiments. An overlong coating time decreased the protective effect of the coating film.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: P. Török, E. Tóth, K. Tóth, O. Valkó, B. Deák, B. Kelbert, P. Bálint, Sz. Radócz, A. Kelemen, J. Sonkoly, T. Miglécz, G. Matus, A. Takács, V. A. Molnár, K. Süveges, L. Papp, L. Papp Jr., Z. Tóth, B. Baktay, G. Málnási Csizmadia, I. Oláh, E. Peti, J. Schellenberger, O. Szalkovszki, R. Kiss, and B. TÓthmérész

For understanding local and regional seed dispersal and plant establishment processes and for considering the ecotypes and other forms of specific variability, hard data of locally or regionally measured traits are necessary. We provided newly measured seed weight data of 193 taxa, out of which 24 taxa had not been represented in the SID, LEDA or BiolFlor databases. Our new measurements and formerly published data of locally collected seed weight records together covers over 70% of the Pannonian flora. However, there is still a considerable lack in seed weight data of taxonomically problematic genera, even though they are represented in the Pannonian flora with a relatively high number of species and/or subspecies (e.g. Sorbus, Rosa, Rubus, Crataegus and Hieracium). Our regional database contains very sporadic data on aquatic plants (including also numerous invasive species reported from Hungary and neighbouring countries) and some rare weeds distributed in the southwestern part of the country. These facts indicate the necessity of further seed collection and measurements.

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