Total fluorescence of aqueous phenylacetic acid system at neutral pH has been evaluated as low-dose -ray chemical dosimeter, using the fluorescence accessory of a UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The useful working range of the system is from 4 to 70 Gy. The postirradiation stability of the dosimeter response has been studied at different pH's, storage temperatures and light conditions. The post-irradiation stability of the dosimeter decreases with an increase in storage temperature. The stability is not affected in diffuse sunlight but it is very unstable in direct sunlight.
Authors:S. Ahmad, A. Mannan, I. Qureshi, S. Khan, and I. Ahmad
A rapid and simple method for the determination of iodine from water has been described which is based on preconcentration of iodine with 0.1M solution of 4-(5-nonylpyridine) in benzene or carbon tetrachloride from 1–2M HNO3 followed by neutron irradiation and gamma-ray activity measurements. A clinical survey of endemic goitrous area has also been made to find a possible correlation between the endemic goiter and iodine deficiency in water.
Authors:A. Rahman, K. Khan, G. Al-Khaledi, I. Khan, and Sreeja Attur
Cognitive impairment is a common feature of both lead exposure and hyperphosphorylation of tau. We, therefore, investigated whether lead exposure would induce tau hyperphosphorylation. Wistar rat pups were exposed to 0.2% lead acetate via their dams’ drinking water from postnatal day 1 to 21. Lead in blood and brain were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the expression of tau, phosphorylated tau and various serine/threonine protein phosphatases (PP1, PP2A, PP2B and PP5) in the brain was analyzed by Western blot. Lead exposure significantly impaired learning and resulted in a significant reduction in the expression of tau but increased the phosphorylation of tau at Ser199/202, Thr212/Ser214 and Thr231. PP2A expression decreased, whereas, PP1 and PP5 expression increased in lead-exposed rats. These results demonstrate that early postnatal exposure to lead decrease PP2A expression and induce tau hyperphosphorylation at several serine and threonine residues. Hyperphosphorylation of tau may be a mechanism of Pb-induced deficits in learning and memory.
Authors:M. Sajjad, S.H. Khan, M.Q. Ahmad, A. Rasheed, A. Mujeeb-Kazi, and I.A. Khan
A panel of 94 diverse hexaploid wheat accessions was used to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying the yield related traits on chromosome 3A. Population structure and kinships were estimated using unlinked SSR markers from all 21 chromosomes. Analysis of variance revealed significant difference among accessions; however, genotype × year interaction was non-significant for majority of yield related traits. A mixed linear model (MLM) approach identified six QTLs for four traits that individually accounted for 10.7 to 17.3% phenotypic variability. All QTLs were consistently observed for both study years. New putative QTLs for the maximum fertile florets per spike and spike length were identified. This report on QTLs for yield related traits on chromosome 3A will extend the existing knowledge and may prove useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS) for development of high yielding cultivars.
Authors:A. Rehman, M. Sajjad, S.H. Khan, R.J. Peña, and N.I. Khan
The allelic variation for Glu-1, Glu-3 loci and presence of IBL-1RS translocation was determined in 126 spring wheat accessions. The most common alleles at Glu-1 loci were Glu-A1b (59.52%), Glu-B1c (41.26%), and Glu-D1d (57.14%) and at Glu-3 loci were Glu-A3c (56.45%), Glu-B3j (29.36%), and Glu-D3b (76.98%). Modern Pakistani wheat varieties carried superior alleles at Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci for bread-making quality and had no negative influence of secalin protein-synthesized by 1BL-1RS translocation. For LMW-GS, the most common combination was Glu-A3c, Glu-B3j and Glu-D3b. The loci Glu-B1 and Glu-B3 had the highest allelic diversity of Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, respectively.
Authors:M. Aslam, M.S.I. Zamir, S.A. Anjum, I. Khan, and M. Tanveer
A pot experiment was carried out in completely randomized design (CRD) having three replications to screen out six maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids viz; FH-810, 32-F-10, FH-782, 32-B-33, YH-1898, Monsanto-6525, R-2315 and R-3304 for drought tolerance. The study was carried out with objective to screen hybrids, when exposed to drought on the early phase of their vegetative growth. The moisture treatments comprised of 100% field capacity (FC), 75% FC and 50% FC. The results exhibited that all these hybrids varied substantially in their stability against drought tolerance. However, the results pertaining to interaction of maize hybrids with three moisture levels of 100% FC, 75% FC and 50% FC revealed that 32-F-10 performed comparatively better in contrast to other maize hybrids in plant height (79.74 cm, 47.02 cm and 41.65 cm), leaf area per plant (865.10 cm2, 405.7 cm2 and 178.60 cm2), relative water contents (81.23%, 69.79% and 65.98%), at 100%, 75% and 50% FC, respectively, while YH-1898 hybrid produced lowest values of these attributes in almost all water levels. However, a better stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthetic rate (A) and transpiration rate (E) were exhibited by 32-F-10 while YH-1898 revealed least gas-exchange values among all hybrids. The experimental results revealed that under drought conditions 32-F-10 performed best than all other maize hybrids and could be used for further investigation to screen out other drought tolerant-maize hybrids for maximum production.
Authors:M. Akram, A. Qureshi, N. Khattak, K. Mehmood, Fazal-ur-Rehman, I. Qureshi, and H. Khan
Trace amounts of boron present as impurity in steel can be accurately determined by measuring the α-yield in10B (n,α)7Li reaction, since this reaction has a very high cross section for thermal and epithermal neutrons while natural boron contains
significant isotopic abundance of10B. The α-particles produced during10B (n,α)7Li nuclear reactions can be detected by solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs) and the boron content and its distribution
can be determined in a sample. The technique involves the simultaneous irradiation of unknown and known samples with thermal
neutrons and recording the reaction products in SSNTDs as α-tracks. The α-tracks in the detectors are counted with the aid
of an optical microscope after chemical etching. Boron concentration and distribution in the unknown sample is determined
by counting and comparing the track density with that of standard sample of known boron concentration. The technique of SSNTDs
has been applied by us to determine the distribution of trace amount of boron in commercial alloy steel using LR-115, CA80-15,
CN-85 and CR-39 detectors. All these detectors pose various problems during reactor irradiation and etching. However, CR-39
has been found to be suitable for determining the magnitude and distribution of boron in steel. A brief description of the
method and the optimum irradiation and etching conditions of various detectors for α-track revelation along with results for
the estimation of boron in alloy steel are described in this paper.
Authors:M. Javed, I. Khan, M. Naeem, S. Asghar, H. Naseer, M. Iqbal, and J. Anwar
A tetradentate set of N2O2 salicylaldehyde-amine-N-dione Schiff base was prepared by condensation with salicylaldehyde, ethylenediamine, 2,4-dione and
reduction with NaBH4. The ligand system was characterized by 1H-NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy and HPLC. Radiolabeling studies of the 99mTc-complex were performed using stannous ions as the reducing agent. The purity of the complex was determined by ascending
solvent system on paper chromatography and instant thin-layer chromatography (ITLC). The yield of the complex was >90%. Biodistribution
of the 99mTc-complex of the precursor was studied in rabbits. A significant uptake and retention of injected activity was observed in
the liver and cleared through the bladder. A faint activity was also observed in kidneys. These results indicate that the
proposed system may be suitable for development of a liver/spleen imaging agent for future clinical applications.
Authors:F. Shafiq, S.H. Raza, A. Bibi, I. Khan, and M. Iqbal
Mechanisms involved in salt tolerance urge exploration and investigation of genotypic variation to assist future breeding programs. Comparative examination of ten wheat cultivars for salt tolerance and their response towards proline-seed-priming was performed. Exposure of wheat seedlings to salinity resulted in prominent reduction in root and shoot growth attributes of all cultivars. Furthermore, decrease in the chlorophyll contents was evident although this varied among cultivars. Wheat seedlings grown from proline pre-treated seeds exhibited improved photosynthetic pigments, besides this response was also cultivar and concentration dependent. Generally, salt stressed plants exhibited higher antioxidant enzyme activities. Proline priming significantly influenced antioxidant activities, however, its magnitude varied. The peroxidase activity varied among wheat cultivars that were evident from the analysis of POD activity on Native-PAGE gel. Salinity caused the accumulation of Na+ in the roots and the magnitude of Na+ translocation to the shoot was cultivar dependent. Similarly, K+ uptake and its distribution among root and shoot varied. Priming treatments affected ion distribution of Na+ and K+ but inter-cultivar variations were evident. Conclusively, all the cultivars investigated exhibited differential response to salinity and proline seed pre-treatments. However, the proline-priming mediated improvements in growth and antioxidant enzyme activities contributed to stress tolerance which partly relied on the ability of the plant to uptake sodium and its partitioning in the roots. Of the cultivars tested, Faisalabad-08 and Bhakhar-2002 were ranked as relatively salt tolerant and the cvs. AARI-10, MH-97 and Auqab-2000 as relatively salt sensitive.