In this paper we analyse the trends and developments of energy imports as a percentage of gross inland energy consumption including bunkers in Hungary and the European Union countries between 2000 and 2011. Data show that the average of the energy dependence increased in the EU27 Member States (7.1 percentage points) and in Hungary, too (3.4 percentage points). The energy intensity in Member States is examined as well. According to the data the energy intensity decreased in the majority of the Member States, the average decreased by 16 percent.
Energy efficiency measures and the enhancement of investments in renewable energy play important role in sustainable development and lead to advancement of competitiveness of national economies. The increase of renewable energy consumption and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are significant stages of the process to achieve the main purposes of sustainable development at global and national levels.
In this paper the change in the share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption and in the greenhouse gas emissions intensity in Hungary between 2004 and 2011 is investigated.
It is demonstrated that the share of the renewable energy in gross inland energy consumption increased during the examined period. The measure and the tendency of the change in Hungary show similarity to the EU 27 average.
The greenhouse gas emissions intensity of energy consumption decreased in Hungary between 2004 and 2011. According to the data, the decrease is the second largest among the European Member States.
Authors:T. Mankovits, I. Kocsis, T. Portik, T. Szabó, and I. Páczelt
This paper presents a novel solution for shape optimization of compressed rubber parts. The procedure is based on the finite element method (FEM). A special purpose FEM code written in FORTRAN has been developed for the analysis of nearly incompressible axi-symmetric rubber parts. Numerical stability of the code and sensitivity analysis of the FEM input parameters are investigated. The aim of the parameter optimization is to reduce the time consuming FEM computations for the optimization process. The objective of the optimization is to find the optimal shape of the investigated rubber parts with a specified load-displacement curve. A regression model is used to determine the connection between the input and output data calculated by the FEM.
Authors:N. Boros, A. Petrányi, D. Kocsis, and I. Bodnár
The recycling of greywater for non-potable water applications, such as toilet flushing or irrigation, is a potential solution to reduce potable water consumption. To estimate the quality of raw greywater samples, we measured several physical, chemical and biological parameters. We used Hygiene Monitor test kits to determine microbiological presence in the samples. The greywater samples showed a high variability for all the measured parameters. In general, we found that greywater sources had lightly alkaline character with a considerable inorganic and organic content. About half of the analyzed samples can be characterized as highly contaminated water source with organic substance. The average BOD5 and DOC values of greywater samples were 429 ± 410 mg l−1 and 341 ± 348 mg l−1. The samples showed high similarity concerning the total plate counts parameter (range from 5 to 6 log10 cfu ml−1). Among the three greywater sources, the samples from dish sources showed the lowest coliform content (3.9 log10 cfu ml−1) and the bath samples were contaminated with coliforms to the highest degree (4.9 log10 cfu ml−1). The results of E. coli contamination tests proved that all greywater sources can be contaminated with pathogen bacteria, consequently the treatment before reuse of greywater is indispensable.
Authors:T. Mankovits, I. Budai, G. Balogh, A. Gábora, I. Kozma, T. Varga, S. Manó, and I. Kocsis
The development of an efficient procedure for 3d modeling and finite element simulation of metal foams is one of the greatest challenges for engineer researchers nowadays. Creating 3d CAD model is alone a demanding engineering task due to its extremely complex geometry, and the proper finite element analysis process is still in the center of the research. The increasingly widespread application of the metal foams, e.g. in vehicle and medical industry, requires this knowledge in the design phase. A closed-cell metal foam is studied using different analyzing methods where the aim is to collect information about the composition and geometry (structure) that is satisfactory for the later research. Using statistical methods microscopic, X-ray and surface analyzing studies on the specimens produced according to the concerning standard are evaluated. The main goal of this part of the project is to obtain structural information and to determine the homogeneity or the in-homogeneity property of the metal foam specimens taken from different locations.
Authors:M. Kocsis, L. Nyikos, I. Szentpétery, D. Horváth, J. Kecskeméti, A. Lovas, T. Pajkossy, and L. Pócs
An attempt was made to detect neutrons from the so-called cold nuclear fusion of deuterium in palladium and titanium, both saturated with deuterium: the palladium electrolytically and the titanium from gas phase. The measurements were performed in a tunnel located 30 m deep in limestone, using3He filled proportional counters surrounded by water for neutron moderation. In all cases the detected neutron flux was practically equal to the background level. Very low upper limits to the neutron source strength were obtained from this experiment: 2×10–4 n.s–1g–1 Pd and 4.3×10–4 n.s–1g–1 Ti on the 1 level.
Authors:É. Sárdi, É. Stefanovits-Bányai, I. Kocsis, M. Takács-Hájos, H. Fébel, and A. Blázovics
Of the twenty table beet (
ALEF.) cultivars investigated for several nutritionally important components (betaine, betanin, phenol, glucose, fructose, sucrose) formerly (Hájos
et al., 2004), cultivar Ditroit having average quality parameters was chosen for in vitro animal experiments. The hyperlipidemic rat model is suitable to study the physiological effect of table beet on the metabolic alterations and the redox homeostasis in the liver. In fatty liver, as a consequence of hyperlipidemy, the redox homeostasis is strongly injured. General biologically active compounds of table beet have indirect lipid lowering effect and antioxidant properties. Therefore, the effect of lyophilised table beet powder was studied on altered lipid metabolism and redox parameters in hyperlipidemic rats. Hyperlipidemy was induced by a fat-rich diet, and both in the control group and in the hyperlipidemic group, animals were treated with the lyophilised table beet powder (2 g bwkg
) added into rat chow for 10 days parallel with the feeding. Significant antioxidant activity of table beet was recorded in the hyperlipidemic liver. This phenomenon was expected because of the significant amount of betanin and the high total polyphenol content of the beet. Significant beneficial changes were also observed in the serum cholesterol level, alkaline phosphatase and alanine-aminotransferase activities, although a non-expected elevation was observed in the serum bilirubin level in hyperlipidemy. Non-specific H-donor activity was not changed, but protein related free SH-group concentration was decreased in the plasma. Serum triglyceride level was better after table beet treatment in normolipidemy, only. Change of redox-homeostasis was more favourable in the liver during the treatment. Diene conjugate content and the level of induced free radicals decreased during the table beet treatment in case of fatty liver. These changes were due to the bioactive components of the commercially available table beet. Consequently, table beet due to its specific qualities beneficially influences several metabolic pathways, therefore it can be considered as a functional food.