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Abstract  

Let X ⊂ ℝ be an interval of positive length and define the set Δ = {(x, y) ∈ X × X | xy}. We give the solution of the equation

\documentclass{aastex} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{bm} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{pifont} \usepackage{stmaryrd} \usepackage{textcomp} \usepackage{upgreek} \usepackage{portland,xspace} \usepackage{amsmath,amsxtra} \usepackage{bbm} \pagestyle{empty} \DeclareMathSizes{10}{9}{7}{6} \begin{document} $$F(G_1 (x,y),G_2 (u,v)) = G(F(x,u),F(y,v)),$$ \end{document}
which holds for all (x, y) ∈ Δ and (u, υ) ∈ Δ, where the functions F: XX, G 1: Δ → X, G 2: Δ → X, and G: F(X, X) × F(X, X) → X are continuous and strictly monotonic in each variable.

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Abstract

Energy efficiency measures and the enhancement of investments in renewable energy play important role in sustainable development and lead to advancement of competitiveness of national economies. The increase of renewable energy consumption and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are significant stages of the process to achieve the main purposes of sustainable development at global and national levels.

In this paper the change in the share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption and in the greenhouse gas emissions intensity in Hungary between 2004 and 2011 is investigated.

It is demonstrated that the share of the renewable energy in gross inland energy consumption increased during the examined period. The measure and the tendency of the change in Hungary show similarity to the EU 27 average.

The greenhouse gas emissions intensity of energy consumption decreased in Hungary between 2004 and 2011. According to the data, the decrease is the second largest among the European Member States.

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Abstract

In this paper we analyse the trends and developments of energy imports as a percentage of gross inland energy consumption including bunkers in Hungary and the European Union countries between 2000 and 2011. Data show that the average of the energy dependence increased in the EU27 Member States (7.1 percentage points) and in Hungary, too (3.4 percentage points). The energy intensity in Member States is examined as well. According to the data the energy intensity decreased in the majority of the Member States, the average decreased by 16 percent.

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Abstract

The recycling of greywater for non-potable water applications, such as toilet flushing or irrigation, is a potential solution to reduce potable water consumption. To estimate the quality of raw greywater samples, we measured several physical, chemical and biological parameters. We used Hygiene Monitor test kits to determine microbiological presence in the samples. The greywater samples showed a high variability for all the measured parameters. In general, we found that greywater sources had lightly alkaline character with a considerable inorganic and organic content. About half of the analyzed samples can be characterized as highly contaminated water source with organic substance. The average BOD5 and DOC values of greywater samples were 429 ± 410 mg l−1 and 341 ± 348 mg l−1. The samples showed high similarity concerning the total plate counts parameter (range from 5 to 6 log10 cfu ml−1). Among the three greywater sources, the samples from dish sources showed the lowest coliform content (3.9 log10 cfu ml−1) and the bath samples were contaminated with coliforms to the highest degree (4.9 log10 cfu ml−1). The results of E. coli contamination tests proved that all greywater sources can be contaminated with pathogen bacteria, consequently the treatment before reuse of greywater is indispensable.

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Abstract

This paper presents a novel solution for shape optimization of compressed rubber parts. The procedure is based on the finite element method (FEM). A special purpose FEM code written in FORTRAN has been developed for the analysis of nearly incompressible axi-symmetric rubber parts. Numerical stability of the code and sensitivity analysis of the FEM input parameters are investigated. The aim of the parameter optimization is to reduce the time consuming FEM computations for the optimization process. The objective of the optimization is to find the optimal shape of the investigated rubber parts with a specified load-displacement curve. A regression model is used to determine the connection between the input and output data calculated by the FEM.

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The development of an efficient procedure for 3d modeling and finite element simulation of metal foams is one of the greatest challenges for engineer researchers nowadays. Creating 3d CAD model is alone a demanding engineering task due to its extremely complex geometry, and the proper finite element analysis process is still in the center of the research. The increasingly widespread application of the metal foams, e.g. in vehicle and medical industry, requires this knowledge in the design phase. A closed-cell metal foam is studied using different analyzing methods where the aim is to collect information about the composition and geometry (structure) that is satisfactory for the later research. Using statistical methods microscopic, X-ray and surface analyzing studies on the specimens produced according to the concerning standard are evaluated. The main goal of this part of the project is to obtain structural information and to determine the homogeneity or the in-homogeneity property of the metal foam specimens taken from different locations.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
G. Pokol
,
F. Tóth
,
I. Péter
,
J. Madarász
,
T. Kocsis
, and
S. Gál
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Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry
Authors:
M. Kocsis
,
L. Nyikos
,
I. Szentpétery
,
D. Horváth
,
J. Kecskeméti
,
A. Lovas
,
T. Pajkossy
, and
L. Pócs

Abstract  

An attempt was made to detect neutrons from the so-called cold nuclear fusion of deuterium in palladium and titanium, both saturated with deuterium: the palladium electrolytically and the titanium from gas phase. The measurements were performed in a tunnel located 30 m deep in limestone, using3He filled proportional counters surrounded by water for neutron moderation. In all cases the detected neutron flux was practically equal to the background level. Very low upper limits to the neutron source strength were obtained from this experiment: 2×10–4 n.s–1g–1 Pd and 4.3×10–4 n.s–1g–1 Ti on the 1 level.

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Freezing tolerance is a quantitative trait, determined by many genes and also influenced by environmental factors. Thus, the development of reliable testing methods is a prerequisite both for the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and for the identification of the genes behind the QTLs. Transformation methods proved to be effective in the direct verification of isolated genes involved in low temperature stress responses. In order to develop freezing tolerance, winter cereals must be adapted through a cold hardening period, which not only influences cold adaptation but also initiates the vernalization process necessary for flowering. Recent and ongoing studies are endeavouring to uncover the relationship between freezing tolerance and vernalization response at the genetic and molecular levels. This review aims to explain cereal freezing tolerance on the basis of recent discoveries in the areas outlined above.

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