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  • Author or Editor: I. Leonova x
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We report the application of wheat microsatellites (GWM) for the investigation of Aegilops species carrying C and Ugenomes. Overall, 89 microsatellite markers located in A, B and D genomes of bred wheat were used for the analysis of Ae. cylindrica Host. (CCDD) and Ae. triuncialis L. (UUCC). Ae. tauschii Coss. (DD) was included as a control of amplification of the D-genome markers. Twelve, eleven and seven of the A-genome-specific markers produced amplification fragments in Ae. cylindrica, Ae. triuncialis and Ae. tauschii , respectively. The level of amplification of the B-genome markers was similar in all investigated species and amounted to 60–65%. The markers of the D genome showed a significantly higher polymorphism level among Ae. tauschii accessions than among those of Ae. cylindrica . Twenty-one microsatellite markers revealing polymorphism in Ae. cylindrica and Ae. triuncialis can be used as a markers for discrimination of C and U genomes. The results of microsatellite analysis were used to estimate genetic relationships among the Aegilops species. The dendrogram distinguished all Aegilops accessions and clustered them into three groups according to their species classification. There was no strong relation between the molecular data of the studied accessions and their geographical region of origin. Obtained data could be utilized for characterization and assessing genetic diversity of wild wheat relatives with C and U genomes.

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Two intervarietal substitution lines of common wheat cv. Sava bearing chromosome 5B from Saratovskaya 29 and Diamant 2 donors and two near-isogenic lines (NILs) of winter cv. Bezostaya 1 with the Vrn-B1 locus from the same donors were developed. Multiple allelism of the dominant Vrn-B1 locus was studied in these lines. It manifested itself as earing time variation in plants grown near Novosibirsk (West Siberia), Almaty (Kazakhstan), and in a greenhouse. One dominant allele, Vrn-B1 S, having a stronger effect on earing time, was detected in Saratovskaya 29 and another, Vrn-B1 Dm, in Diamant 2. The NILs and substitution lines are late-ripening. Lines with Vrn-B1 S come to earing earlier than with Vrn-B1 Dm.

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Two monosomic alien substitution lines (MAS lines, 2n=41=40+5R) of wheat Triticum aestivum L. cv. ‘Saratovskaya 29’ were used as recipients in the development of inter-varietal substitution lines for chromosomes 5A and 5D. In the MAS lines, chromosomes 5A or 5D of ‘Saratovskaya 29’ were replaced by homoeologous univalent chromosome 5R of rye Secale cereale L. cv. ‘Onokhoiskaya’, which bears the Hp marker gene coding for hairy peduncle. The donors included 18 spring and winter wheat varieties. The MAS lines were developed by crossing monosomic lines of ‘Saratovskaya 29’ for chromosomes 5A and 5D to a wheat-rye substitution line of ‘Saratovskaya 29’ 5R(5D) followed by cytological and morphological selection of plants with chromosome configuration 20II +5RI in metaphase I of pollen mother cells from F 1 and F 2 plants with slightly hairy peduncles. It was shown that MAS lines could be maintained during long-term propagation (18 generations). Use of MAS lines with the Hp marker gene allows acceleration and abbreviation of cytological analysis and elimination of the probability of ‘univalent switch’ in the course of the development of substitution lines. The method was applied to the development of 22 ‘Saratovskaya 29’ lines with inter-varietal substitution for chromosomes 5A and 5D. Fourteen and thirteen microsatellite markers located in chromosomes 5A and 5D, respectively, were used to prove the authenticity of the inter-varietal substitution lines. According to these markers, 21 substitution lines from 22 studied were correct.

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Cultivation of winter wheat varieties in the West Siberian region of Russia has competitive advantages compared to spring varieties: utilization of spring-summer moisture, early maturation and harvest and a high yield potential. The poor resistance of winter varieties to foliar diseases results in significant yield losses and facilitates the spread of pathogens to the spring wheat cultivars. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of molecular markers specific for VRN-1 and Lr loci in selecting winter wheat genotypes resistant to leaf rust. The winter wheat cultivars Biyskaya ozymaya and Filatovka were crossed with spring wheat introgression lines 21-4 and 5366-180 and the spring wheat cultivar Tulaikovskaya 10 carrying LrTt2, LrAsp5 and Lr6Ai#2 loci from Triticum timopheevii, Aegilops speltoides and Thynopyrum intermedium, respectively. To identify winter wheat plants homozygous for target loci, F2 populations were screened with functional markers to VRN-1 genes and with markers specific for alien genetic material. Based on the genotyping analysis of 371 F2 plants a total of 44 homozygous genotypes with winter habit was identified. There were eight genotypes containing Lr loci among them. Evaluation of F2-derived F3-4 families for both seedling and adult resistance showed that only one F3-4 family had moderate susceptible reaction type to the field population of leaf rust. Others ranged from nearly immune to resistant with severity of 5%. The data also indicated the utility of the VRN-1 allele-specific markers for detection of genotypes with winter habit without vernalization at early stages of plant breeding.

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A leaf rust resistance gene transferred from the tetraploid wheat Triticum timopheevii (Zhuk.) Zhuk. (genomic composition: A t A t GG) into common wheat Triticum aestivum L. conditioned resistance at the seedling and adult plant stages in the introgression line ‘line 842-2’. To determine chromosome location and to map the resistance gene an F 2 population from a cross between ‘line 842-2’ and susceptible wheat cultivar ‘Skala’ was developed and screened against leaf rust pathotype 77 ( Puccinia triticina Erikss.). Microsatellite markers detected introgressions of the T. timopheevii genome on chromosomes 1A, 2A, 2B, 5B and 6B of ‘line 842-2’. Linkage analysis revealed an association between leaf rust resistance and microsatellite markers located on chromosome 5B. The markers Xgwm880 and Xgwm1257 were closely linked to the resistance gene with genetic distances of 7.7 cM and 10.4 cM, respectively. Infection type tests with three leaf rust isolates resulted in different patterns of infection types of ‘line 842-2’ and ‘Thatcher’ near-isogenic line with the Lr18 gene on chromosome 5B. The data corroborated the hypothesis of the diversity of the resistance coming from T. timopheevii . The resistance gene of the introgression ‘line 842-2’ seems to be different than Lr18 and therefore it was designated LrTt2 .

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