Authors:K. Juzoń, E. Skrzypek, I. Czyczło-Mysza, and I. Marcińska
The aim of this study was to determine the susceptibility to drought of selected genotypes of pea and yellow lupine. An analysis was made of the changes in protein and phenolics content and how they affect the yield parameters. The plant material consisted of six genotypes of pea and yellow lupine. Seedlings (plants with 5–6 leaves) were subjected to drought at 25% field water capacity for 2 weeks. Soil drought decreased the relative water content (RWC) in the leaves of pea and lupine. On the 14th day of drought the increase in protein content was almost two-folds higher in lupine plants than in pea. The phenolics content showed an increase in both pea and lupine plants on the 1st day of drought (20% and 15%, respectively), while on the 14th day the phenolics content decreased by 2% in pea, and was not significantly different in lupine. Soil drought reduced the values of almost all yield components. Only the 1000-seed weight increased under drought conditions. Based on the drought susceptibility index values for RWC, protein and phenolics content, seed yield and biomass, the least drought-susceptible genotypes were Batuta (pea) and Morocco 4 (lupine), as they had the lowest values of these parameters.
Authors:I. Marcińska, I. Czyczyło-Mysza, E. Skrzypek, M. Warchoł, K. Zieliński, and E. Dubas
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of selected factors on rye (Secale cereale L.) haploid embryo production by the wide crossing method. The study was performed on fifteen winter rye genotypes. This is the first time for rye when besides the genotype, on the enlargement of ovaries and haploid embryo production, such factors as: type of auxin analogues 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxybenzoic acid (dicamba) and 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloropyridine-2-carboxylic acid (picloram), and the time between florets emasculation and pollination were investigated. All factors had a significant impact on rye ovary enlargement, however the haploid embryo formation depended only on rye genotype, not on kind of auxin and days between emasculation to pollination. In total, twenty one haploid embryos were formed by six genotypes of fifteen tested. On average, 13.86% (after 2,4-D treatment) to 20.05% (after dicamba treatment) enlarged ovaries per emasculated florets were obtained. Most of the ovaries enlarged when florets were pollinated 4 and 6 days after emasculation. Most of the haploid embryos formed when florets were pollinated 6 days after emasculation. The obtained haploid embryos did not germinate.
Authors:A. Noga, M. Warchoł, I. Czyczyło-Mysza, I. Marcińska, K. Dziurka, T. Warzecha, and E. Skrzypek
Chlorophyll a fluorescence can provide insight into the ability of plants to tolerate environmental conditions that can damage photosynthetic apparatus and decrease yield. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and yield components of oat DH lines. All DH lines significantly differed in chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and yield components. The overall performance index of PSII photochemistry (PI), showed the highest variation between DH lines, whereas the lowest had the ratio of variable to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm). The highest differences were observed in the number of grains per plant (21.3 to 600). Thousand-grain weight varied from 17.82 g to 41.01 g and the biomass from 8.01 g to 29.31 g. The highest negative correlations were found between Fv/Fm, Area (pool size of electron acceptors from PSII), PI and grain number per plant and biomass. Positive correlations were observed between light energy absorption (ABS/CS), grain number per plant and biomass, as well as the amount of excitation energy trapped in PSII reaction centers (TRo/CS) and biomass. Principal component analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, together with yield components, discriminated two oat DH lines groups according to their photosynthetic efficiency and yield.
Authors:E. Skrzypek, M. Warchoł, I. Czyczyło-Mysza, I. Marcińska, A. Nowakowska, K. Dziurka, K. Juzoń, and A. Noga
Oat haploid embryos were obtained by wide crossing with maize. The effect of light intensity during the growing period of donor plants (450 and 800 µmol m−2 s−1) and in vitro cultures (20, 40, 70 and 110 µmol m−2 s−1) was examined for the induction and development of oat DH lines. Oat florets (26008) from 32 genotypes were pollinated with maize and treated with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. All the tested genotypes formed more haploid embryos when donor plants were grown in a greenhouse (9.4%) compared to a growth chamber (6.1%). The light intensity of 110 µmol m−2 s−1 during in vitro culture resulted in the highest percentage of embryo germination (38.9%), conversion into plants (36.4%) and DH line production (9.2%) when compared with lower light intensities (20, 40 and 70 µmol m−2 s−1). The results show that the growth conditions of the donor plant and light intensity during in vitro culture can affect the development of haploid embryos. This fact may have an impact on oat breeding programs using oat × maize crosses.