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Abstract  

The influence of untreated and treated fique fibers on the crystallization process and thermal degradation of different thermoplastic matrix composites has been evaluated. The fique fibers have been treated with different chemicals according with the type of thermoplastic matrix employed. Additionally, a copolymer of poly(propylene) with maleic anhydride (MAPP) has been used as compatibilizer. The treatments introduce an increment on the thermal stability of fique fibers respect to untreated fibers. Crystallization is affected by the presence of fique fibers showing important differences for each type of composites. Fiber presence has an important influence on the matrix morphological characteristics, as observed by dynamical mechanical analysis.

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Abstract  

The main aim of this research was the generation of new intelligent materials, in this case thermoreversible material, based on epoxy matrix modified with semi-crystalline block copolymers. In this study, the epoxy system based on a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA), was cured with a stoichiometric amount of an aromatic amine hardener, 4,4’-methylene bis (3-chloro-2,6-diethylaniline) (MCDEA). A diblock copolymer of polyethylene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEOE) was used as self-assembly agent. Optical properties of the samples modified by addition of PEOE were studied by using transmission optical microscope (TOM) equipped with a hot stage. Additionally, morphology generated in the sample was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM).

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Abstract  

The effect of both formaldehyde content and catalyst type used in the synthesis of several resole type phenolic resins has been studied by using differential scanning calorimetry. In this study Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS), Ozawa-Flynn-Wall (OFW) and Friedman model-free kinetics are applied in order to correlate the dynamic cure behaviour with the mentioned synthesis variables. Strong upward dependency of activation energy on conversion has been detected in all cases up to a maximum value. Lower the formaldehyde content fewer changes in activation energy have been detected, revealing a more homogeneous polymerization. As formaldehyde content increases, stronger variations of energy values have been observed and the maximum value is shifted to lower conversions. By comparing triethylamine and sodium hydroxide catalysts similar behaviour has been observed, with higher energy values and shifting of the maximum in the latter. Friedman approach has been resulted in more convenient and accurate for the energy values determination and KAS method seems useful for the dynamic cure prediction of that type of thermoset.

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Abstract  

The kinetics of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-modified epoxy resin cured with different functionalities amine mixtures was analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in both isothermal and dynamic conditions. A delay in the reaction rate was observed which increased with PMMA content. An approach of kinetic features involved in curing was carried out. A linear dependence of preexponential factors of neat systems with modifier content was considered. The approach shows the contribution of other factors including the dilution effect of the functional groups to the observed delay. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated a noticeable change in the interactions present in neat systems due to the presence of PMMA. On the other hand, a significant influence of the ratio between each amine in the epoxy/amine mixtures on the final physical appearance was observed. At constant curing conditions, materials from completely opaque (phase separated) to transparent (miscible) were obtained with the increase in monoamine content.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
C. Peña
,
K. de la Caba
,
A. Retegi
,
C. Ocando
,
J. Labidi
,
J. Echeverria
, and
I. Mondragon

Abstract  

Autocondensation reactions of mimosa and chestnut tannin extracts solutions have been analysed at several pH by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Alkaline pH promotes autocondensation reaction of these tannins. Curing reactions between these tannins and hexamine at acid and not strongly alkaline pH have been proved by DSC. Thermal analysis gives insights not only on reactions between tannin and hexamine, but also about water presence on solutions and degradation reactions of tannins. Products obtained from reactions between tannins and hexamine have been analysed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The obtained chemical structures are influenced by both chemical structure of tannin and pH of solution. For mimosa tannin amine and ether groups are obtained while for hydrolysable chestnut tannin amide groups have been detected.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
M. López
,
M. Blanco
,
A. Vazquez
,
J. Ramos
,
A. Arbelaiz
,
N. Gabilondo
,
J. Echeverría
, and
I. Mondragon

Abstract  

The curing kinetics of nanocomposites based on phenolic resol cured with triethylamine (TEA) containing different amounts of organic montmorillonite was analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry. Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) model-free kinetics has been applied to correlate the dynamic cure behaviour in the presence of modified montmorillonite. The effect in the curing of the use of different clay modifiers has also been studied. A commercial clay with hydroxyl groups (Cloisite 30B) and a customized montmorillonite (PheMMT) whose reactive groups induce condensation reactions with the resol matrix have been used. Strong dependency of activation energy on apparent conversion has been observed for all compounds.

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