It is inferred from the thermoanalytical data obtained on 0.2–4.0M solutions of Fe(ClO4)2 which are frozen under non-equilibrium conditions that the phase containing the solute ions turns into a glassy state below −95°. On the warming of these solutions exothermic and endothermic processes are observed which can be related to the effects observed by the nuclear gamma resonance method.
The 57Fe Mössbauer spectrum of Kaba (Hungary) meteorite was recorded at room and at liquid nitrogen temperatures. The evaluation of the spectrum showed that the iron containing components of the Kaba meteorite are magnetite, maghemite, troilite, fayalite and pentlandite.
In order to target factors involved in plant-pathogen interactions, gene expression differences were investigated on pepper (
L.) plants after artificial infection with the bacterial pathogen
. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism investigations on reverse transcribed DNA fragments (cDNA-AFLP) were used to compare the expression profiles of parental lines and of resistant and susceptible individuals from pepper populations segregating for the
gene, which confers a general defence system in pepper. In total, 73 transcript-derived fragments (TDFs) displaying differential expression patterns could be identified (presence-absence and/or different time courses in resistant and susceptible genotypes). Of these, 67 fragments were cloned and sequenced. In the case of several TDFs, sequence comparisons revealed close homologies to genes known to be responsible for abiotic stress or biotic elicitors, presenting potentially interesting targets for more detailed studies on gene expression and signal transduction.
The paper presents significant aspects regarding the concept and details of constructive solutions used to design and implement an energy efficient school building in Romania. Although the site is in a moderate seismic zone, the structural needs of the building impose specific insulation solutions for making the passive house concept applicable. Renewable energy sources are also applied to optimize the maintenance cost and to reduce the payback period to a feasible level. In order to prove the benefits of the solutions, to justify the higher initial investment, to improve the real-time energy consumption of the building, as well as to keep track of the internal climate parameters, a complex monitoring system was planned and implemented. Details and correlation between specific details and temperature sensors distribution are also presented.
Simultaneous calorimetric and potentiometric/thermometric measurements were performed on three uncatalyzed bromate oscillators (UBOs) showing distinct temporal structures. The following UBOs were chosen: a) the gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxy benzoic acid)—bromate; b) the 1-hydroxy-4-[(1-hydroxy-2-methylamino)ethyl] benzene (HME)—bromate; and c) the 1,4-cyclohexanedione (CHD)—bromate system. Their oscillating reactions were monitored by an isoperibolic batch calorimeter of the Calvet-type at 20°C and with a quasi-adiabatic Dewar setup at room temperature, and in addition by platinum/calomel potentiometry and thermometry. Shape of the calorimetric curves, number and duration of the oscillations and their frequencies varied considerably between these three UBOs. The underlying chemical reaction schemes are discussed in connection with the energetic background.
Authors:Á. Tóth, E. Baka, Sz. Luzics, I. Bata-Vidács, I. Nagy, B. Bálint, R. Herczeg, F. Olasz, T. Wilk, T. Nagy, B. Kriszt, I. Nagy, and J. Kukolya
Thermobifidas are thermophilic, aerobic, lignocellulose decomposing actinomycetes. The Thermobifida genus includes four species: T. fusca, T. alba, T. cellulosilytica, and T. halotolerans. T. fusca YX is the far best characterized strain of this taxon and several cellulases and hemicellulases have been cloned from it for industrial purposes targeting paper industry, biofuel, and feed applications. Unfortunately, sequence data of such enzymes are almost exclusively restricted to this single species; however, we demonstrated earlier by zymography that other T. alba and T. cellulosilytica strains encode the same enzyme sets. Recently, the advances in whole genome sequencing by the use of next generation genomics platforms accelerated the selection process of valuable hydrolases from uncharacterized bacterial species for cloning purposes. For this purpose T. cellulosilytica TB100T type strain was chosen for de novo genome sequencing. We have assembled the genome of T. cellulosilytica strain TB100T into 168 contigs and 19 scaffolds, with reference length of 4 327 869 bps, 3 589 putative coding sequences, 53 tRNAs, and 4 rRNAs. The analysis of the annotated genome revealed the existence of 27 putative hydrolases belonging to 14 different glycoside hydrolase (GH) families. The investigation of identified, cloned, and heterologously multiple cellulases, mannanases, xylanases, and amylases may result in industrial applications beside gaining useful basic research related information.
We examined the effects of exercise therapy on postural stability, multifidus thickness, and pain intensity in patients with low-back pain.
Materials and methods
Subjects were divided into a chronic low-back pain (CLBP; n = 10) group and a healthy control (C; n = 10) group. Group CLBP took part in an 8-week training programme, whereas group C did not. The thickness of the multifidus in both groups was assessed using ultrasonography before and after 8 weeks, in prone and kneeling positions, in relaxed and contracted states. A standing heel-raising test was used to assess postural stability.
After the intervention in group CLBP, the thickness of the contracted multifidus increased in the prone position, whereas the thickness of both the contracted and relaxed multifidus decreased in the kneeling position. In group C after 8 weeks, multifidus thickness decreased in both positions, while both relaxed and contracted. Group C performed the standing heel-raising test significantly better than group CLBP before the 8-week period. After the training, group CLBP improved significantly, but no changes were found in group C.
Discussion and conclusions
Changes in thickness of the multifidus correlate with improved postural stability and decreased pain intensity. Decreasing thickness in healthy individuals may be an early sign of developing CLBP.
Authors:G. Folly, B. Hajtman, J. Nagy, and I. Ruff
A sample of 80 Hungarian scientists, authors or co-authors of a total number of 6273 papers—published between 1930–1976—has been analysed. Citation data to eachpaper were collected form the 1964–76 SCI's by manual search. Citation counts were distinguished with respect to the following categories: (I) the set of cited authors has element(s) common with the set of citing authors (self citation), (II) condition I is not satisfied, but the cited author under study and at least one of the citing authors were co-authors prior to the publication of the cited paper, (III) none of the former criteria is satisfied. The yearly average citation frequency of a paper was not corrected for obsolescence, since there is no evidence that the decay of citation frequency with time is independent of the absolute citedness of the paper. Individual performance has been measured (a) by the sum of the vearly average typeIII fractional citation frequencies over all of the author's papers, (b) by the sum of the yearly average citation frequency normalized to one single-authored paper per year over the period of the author's activity, (c) by the same as ina, but summed up only over the most highly cited papers scattering upwards from the individual's own average, (d) by the fractional authorship, and (e) by the number of items in the author's publication list. The first three parameters seem to be applicable in measuring the utility of the individual's scientific contribution with slightly different emphasis on different aspects. These parameters are uncorrelated with those measuring the output of individuals.