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To raise the efficiency of plant regeneration we studied the important and necessary elements of the procedure. The embryogen capacity of 33 various grape genotypes were tested on four different induction media. We successfully obtained anther derived embryogenic calli in 27 genotypes with the range of 1–12%, this is the first reported protocol for embryogenesis from Korai bíbor, Odysseus, Orpheus and Pannon frankos cultivars. Two sorts of sterilization treatments were examined before inducing somatic embryos. For optimisation of grape regeneration system the propagation of calli was attempted in Richter 110 cultivar, there was no any significant differences in the measured values, but CPE medium proved more successful in maintaining embryogenic capacity of callus. We experienced high developmental differences between the propagated embryogenic culture of Richter 110, Teleki 5C and Chardonnay derived from MSNOA liquid medium and from MSE solid medium. Regenerated plants from embryogenic callus were obtained in 21 genotypes, in Chardonnay cultivar CP medium influenced more positively the plant regeneration than the MS/2 medium.

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The authors carried out the archaeometric analyses of 9 basalt preforms found at the Kádárta site in Veszprém county. Most of the analyses used non-destructive methods (macroscopic petrography, PGAA, MS and electron-microprobe (EDXEPMA) method developed within the frames of these investigations) and the traditional destructive petrographic and mineral chemical analyses were carried out on a small flake. All the analyses demonstrated that the nine basalt artefacts were prepared from the same raw material. According to the material collected so far from the basalt volcanoes of the Pannonian Basin, this raw material came from the volcanic territory of the Little Hungarian Plain and the Balaton Highlands. Within these territories the most probable provenance of the raw material is the lava rocks in the region of Boncsos-tető, although Hegyestű, Somló and Haláp cannot definitely be excluded.

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The biotic and abiotic stresses are the major limiting factors in plant productivity. To overcome these difficulties molecular breeding methods have recently been widely used to improve the stress and disease resistance of grapevine cultivars. Crown gall disease caused by Agrobacterium vitis or Agrobacterium tumefaciens causes serious damage worldwide on grapevine, and there is no efficient method yet that can be routinely used by grape-growers to prevent this disease. Therefore genetic manipulation for crown gall resistance would have a great economic impact. To this end embryogenic culture of Vitis berlandieri × Vitis rupestris cv. Richter 110 was transformed with a virE1 gene construct. Twenty-six plant lines were selected, and their transgenic nature was confirmed by PCR analysis. Seventeen of the 26 lines showed resistance to crown gall disease following inoculation with A. vitis Tm4 strain.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Authors: T. Emri, Brigitta Oláh, L. Sámi, Zs. Molnár, Márta Nagy, Tünde Pusztahelyi, and I. Pócsi
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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors: N. Nagy, B. Igyártó, A. Magyar, Emese Gazdag, V. Palya, and I. Oláh

The oesophageal tonsil of the chicken is a novel member of the mucosal-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT), which is located around the entrance of the proventriculus. It consists of 6 to 8 single units, which are surrounded by a thin fibrous capsule. Each one is organised around the bottom of the longitudinal folds of the oesophagus, and serves as a 'tonsillar crypt'. Stratified squamous epithelium is infiltrated by lymphoid cells, i.e. T cells, plasma cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells, but not B cells, to form lymphoepithelium (LE). In the LE vimentin-, MHC II- and ATPase-positive cells possibly represent Langerhans' cells, but the appearance of 74.3 positive cells in the LE is unusual, because the 74.3 monoclonal antibody (mAb) recognises chicken follicular dendritic cells in the germinal centre and medulla of the bursal follicles. The subepithelial lymphoid tissue is organised into T- and B-dependent regions, which are the interfollicular areas and the germinal centres, respectively. Existence of high-endothelial venules in the interfollicular region suggests an extensive cellular connection between the oesophageal tonsil and the other lymphoid organs. In the resting oesophagus the lumen is closed, but during swallowing a bolus the crypt opens and the lymphoepithelium can be exposed to undigested food, antigens, infectious agents and vaccines. The location of the oesophageal tonsil, cranial to the stomach, may provide this organ with a unique role as compared to the other parts of the MALT; namely, it may contribute to the replication of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and/or the pathogenesis of infectious bursal disease.

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In this study sap flow dynamics of mature sessile oak trees (Quercus petraea) in a marginal sessile oakturkey oak forest was investigated in 2009. That year spring was dry without significant rain in April and May and the driest month was August. Due to the extreme weather conditions the volumetric soil water content (SWC) of upper 30 cm was low on experimental days in May (0.13–0.14 cm3 cm−3) but it reached the lowest value in August (0.08 cm3 cm−3). Sap flow was measured in a dominant and a co-dominant tree by heat dissipation method from 26 March till 30 October. In the present paper several three-day long periods of the continuous seasonal recordings were chosen to represent the effects of typical weather conditions and different stages of canopy development on sap flow dynamics. The daily maximum sap flow density values of dominant and co-dominant trees were similar (0.30–0.32 cm3 cm−2 min−1) in moist period (July). Rains and transient increase of SWC after proceeding drought resulted in change of diurnal course of sap flow in experimental days of July. In this period dominant trees also showed considerable sap flow (0.19 cm3 cm−2 min−1) during night hours and short sap flow peaks in early morning (6:00 to 8:00 a.m.) indicating the refilling of desiccated tissues. After the progressive drought in August the daily maximum sap flow density decreased to 0.07 cm3 cm-2 min-1 in dominant tree and to 0.12 cm3 cm−2 min−1 in the co-dominant. Both trees exhibited gradual stomatal closure from morning hours.

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Physiology International
Authors: J Fodor, A Gomba-Tóth, T Oláh, E Zádor, Zs Cs Tóth, I Ioannis, B Molnár, I Kovács, and L Csernoch

Atherosclerosis is a disease caused by a build-up of fatty plaques and cholesterol in the arteries. The lumen of the vessels is obliterated resulting in restricted blood supply to tissues. In ischemic conditions, the cytosolic Ca2+ level of skeletal muscle may increase, indicating the alteration of Ca2+ removal mechanisms. Ca2+ is transported from cytosol into the sarcoplasmic reticulum by Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA), with its 1a isoform expressed in adult, while its 1b isoform in neonatal and regenerating fast-twitch skeletal muscle. To investigate the role of these isoforms in ischemic skeletal muscle, biopsies from musculus biceps femoris of patients who underwent amputation due to atherosclerosis were examined. Samples were removed from the visibly healthy and hypoxia-affected tissue. Significantly increased SERCA1a expression was detected under the ischemic conditions (246 ± 69%; p < 0.05) compared with the healthy tissue. Furthermore, the ratio of SERCA1a-positive fibers was slightly increased (46 ± 4% in healthy tissue and 60 ± 5% in ischemic tissue; p > 0.05), whereas SERCA2a did not change. In addition, in primary cultures derived from hypoxia-affected tissue, the diameter and fusion index of myotubes were significantly increased (30 ± 1.6 µm vs. 41 ± 2.4 µm and 31 ± 4% vs. 45 ± 3%; p < 0.05). We propose that the increased SERCA1a expression indicates the existence and location of compensating mechanisms in ischemic muscle.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: J.T. Padra, I. Seres, A. Oláh, F. Fenyvesi, G. Paragh, G. Paragh, László Csernoch, G. Fóris, and P. Kertai

In our experiments we compared the serum lipoprotein lipid composition of Fischer 344 (F344) and Long-Evans (LE) inbred rats as well as of their hybrid FLF1 from both sexes after feeding them for 2, 4 and 8 weeks with different diets. The following diets were used: 1) standard diet marked as CRLT/N; 2) diet reach in butter marked as BR; 3) diet containing cholesterol, sodium cholate and methylthiouracil marked as CR; 4) diet marked as BRC, which is the Hartroft-Sós diet modified by our research group consisting of the diets BR and CR. The latter diet was the most effective, because within two weeks the level of serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride in the F344 female rats increased 8, 30, 4 and 8 times, respectively. The male rats of the Long-Evans strain showed moderately increased values while the FLF1 female hybrids derived from the hybridization of LE males and F344 females had values closer to those of the mother strain. Despite the fact that during this time the LDL/HDL ratio increased from 0.06 to 2.97 and the PON-1 activity decreased to one-third, a significant lipid deposition could not be shown in the wall of the abdominal aorta even two months later. Our experimental model is suitable for the chemoprevention of dyslipidaemia or rapid testing of molecules chosen for its treatment.

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Acta Botanica Hungarica
Authors: P. Török, E. Tóth, K. Tóth, O. Valkó, B. Deák, B. Kelbert, P. Bálint, Sz. Radócz, A. Kelemen, J. Sonkoly, T. Miglécz, G. Matus, A. Takács, V. A. Molnár, K. Süveges, L. Papp, L. Papp Jr., Z. Tóth, B. Baktay, G. Málnási Csizmadia, I. Oláh, E. Peti, J. Schellenberger, O. Szalkovszki, R. Kiss, and B. TÓthmérész

For understanding local and regional seed dispersal and plant establishment processes and for considering the ecotypes and other forms of specific variability, hard data of locally or regionally measured traits are necessary. We provided newly measured seed weight data of 193 taxa, out of which 24 taxa had not been represented in the SID, LEDA or BiolFlor databases. Our new measurements and formerly published data of locally collected seed weight records together covers over 70% of the Pannonian flora. However, there is still a considerable lack in seed weight data of taxonomically problematic genera, even though they are represented in the Pannonian flora with a relatively high number of species and/or subspecies (e.g. Sorbus, Rosa, Rubus, Crataegus and Hieracium). Our regional database contains very sporadic data on aquatic plants (including also numerous invasive species reported from Hungary and neighbouring countries) and some rare weeds distributed in the southwestern part of the country. These facts indicate the necessity of further seed collection and measurements.

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