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Abstract  

Results for Se in several biological standard reference materials obtained by INAA and selective RNAA procedures developed in our laboratory, are presented and discussed. The comparison of selenium levels in selected blood plasma samples determined by non-destructive NAA and HG-AAS is also presented. The reproducibility and accuracy of the analytical procedure was tested and the results of these investigations were compared with the certified values.

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Abstract  

Boron filter with 500 mg/cm2 surface density has been constructed and used for epithermal neutron activation analysis of geological and biological materials. Bare and boron-covered irradiations were performed to determine the boron activation ratios (R B ) and improvement factors (IF B ) for 23 nuclides. Biological and geological SRMs were also analyzed to demonstrate the practical use of this technique. Experiments have proved that epiboron activation extends the applicability of NAA to samples with unfavorable matrices (i.e., Na, Ca, P, Sc, etc.).

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Evaluation of voice quality parameters of esophageal speech in different neoglottis forms after total laryngectomy.

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Abstract  

The chemical composition of brown coal fuels and several sedimental type atmospheric particulate pollutants of industrial origin (e.g. fly-ash, bottom-ash, dust particulates from foundry-halls and casting-halls) was studied in relation to their toxic and their natural radioactive contents. In addition, some agricultural crops (e.g. soya bean, sunflower, rape, barley and luceme) sampled, in the near vicinity within a radius of about 10 km of the industrial centre were also analysed for significant distributions of any toxic components. Because of the high uranium and thorium concentrations in Hungarian coal fuels and, consequently, in various fly-ash particulate pollutants, the natural gamma activities of the samples were also measured and the relevant equilibriu states of the232Th and238U natural decay series were studied.

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Abstract  

Detailed investigations were carried out to study the distribution of trace and minor elements in different parts (fruit, seed and rib, peduncle, stem, leaf, root) of ripe Hungarian spice paprika plants. Two varieties of paprika plants were analyzed for their Cl, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sc, V and Zn content by non-destructive neutron activation analysis. The results showed that the iron contents of the samples were much higher than those of the other trace elements. For the trace elements Co, Fe, Mn, Sc, V and Zn a considerable enrichment was observed in the leaf, while the Rb and K, Na, Mg showed accumulation mainly in the peduncle. In the other parts (fruit, seed and rib, stem) of the paprika plants no significant enrichment of trace elements was found. Since some of the elements investigated may have been partially eluted during the cleaning of the roots with distilled water and, on the other hand, if the cleaning was not intensive enough, some soil particles could be retained on the samples, the data obtained for the roots should be considered with precaution.

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Abstract  

The metabolic roles of vitamin E and selenium are closely related, and to a very great extent, each can compensate for the deficiency of the other. The aim of the study was to determine and compare the Se and vitamin E (α- and γ-tocopherol) contents of breast milk and commercially available infant formulas in Hungary. The Se content was measured by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), while the α-, and γ-tocopherol concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean Se concentration was 17.4±2.8 μg/L in transitional and 13.8±2.3 μg/L in mature milk. It was found that, all of the starter (ST), the follow-on (FO) and the specialized formulas (SF) had lower Se content than breast milk. Transitional breast milk resulted in a higher Se intake (14 μg/day) than mature milk (11 μg/day). The daily Se intakes in Hungarian infants were within the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) range. The natural vitamin E contents of human milk were similar during the early and late lactation. Mature breast milk had 3.30±1.13 mg/L α-TE concentration and this was significantly higher than that of in ST (1.98±1.57), and FO (1.77±0.78), or in SF ready to feed preparations (1.03±0.74). The present study suggests that the formulas for the optimal development of young infants, should contain concentrations of these antioxidants on a level which is comparable to that of the human milk.

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Abstract  

The regional distribution of copper and other trace elements was determined in the brain of a patient deceased in Wilson's disease against a control brain. The heterogeneous distribution of copper was checked by scanning electron microscope equipped with an X-ray microanalyzer.

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Abstract  

The determination of impurities in high-purity solvents, (acetone, isopropanol, trichloroethylene and trichlorotrifluoroethane) used in the production of integrated circuits was carried out by reactor neutron activation analysis. A special vacuum evaporation technique was used for the preconcentration of the solvents. The results showed that sodium and iron are the main impurity components in the solvents and on the other hand the quality of the solvents satisfies the specifications required by high-technology standards. The suspended solid particles in solvents were counted by a Microscopic Image Analysis System (MIAS).

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
N. Adányi
,
M. Váradi
,
I. Sziklai-László
,
P. Snyder
,
R. D. Snyder
, and
M. Á. Cser

Total daily Se intake was determined by duplicate diet collection, venous blood samples were taken and urine was collected over 24 h in order to measure selenium input and output in healthy, American and Hungarian children aged 8 to 17 living in Budapest. The American children consumed not only locally processed food. Food samples were weighed, mixed, homogenised and the Se content was determined by Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The Se concentration of blood, plasma and urine samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry-hydride generation (AAS-HG) after wet digestion.  Se intake calculated for wet weight was 62±18.5 mg/day in American children. In the Hungarian children the mean Se intake was about 35% less than in the Americans. Se concentrations in plasma were 0.84±0.16, in whole blood 1.13±0.17 mmol l-1 in the Americans, higher than those in healthy Hungarian children (0.64±0.10 and 0.83±0.12 mmol l-1, respectively) of similar age and gender. Urinary Se output calculated for creatinin was higher in the children from abroad (27.0±9.5 mg Se/day/g creatinin) compared to Hungarians (11.0±5.0 mg Se/day/g creatinin).

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