A series of ethynyl and ethenyl end-capped imide resins were synthesised by the reaction of 9,9-bis(4-aminophenyl) fluorene
(BAF) with pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA)3/3′, 4,4′-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (BTDA)/2,2-bis(3,4-dicarboxy
phenyl) hexafluoropropane dianhydride (6F) and 3-ethynyl aniline/maleic anhydride. Structural characterisation was done by
infra red and elemental analysis. Thermal characterisation was done by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric
analysis. The decomposition temperatures of cured resins were above 200°C in nitrogen atmosphere. Char yield at 800°C ranged
The curing behaviour of bismethacryloxy derivative of diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (vinyl ester resin) containing styrene as the reactive diluent (40% w/w) was studied using gel point determination method and DSC. Seven samples of styrene/α-methylstyrene in the ratio 40∶0, 35∶5, 30∶10, 25∶15, 20∶20, 15∶25 and 0∶40 were studied. Delayed curing was observed in samples containing increasing proportions of α-methylstyrene. The energy of activation decreased from 869 kJ mol−1 to 333 kJ mol−1 as the concentration of α-methylstyrene increased in the formulations. However, no difference in thermal stability was observed by replacement of styrene by α-methylstyrene. It was concluded that in vinyl ester resin samples 10–15% α-methylstyrene and 30-25% styrene can be used as reactive diluent.
4,4′-bismaleimidophenyl methane (BM) and 3,3′-bismaleimidophenyl sulfone (BS) were blended in solution using weight ratios 3∶1 (MS31), 2∶1 (MS21), 1∶1 (MS11), 1∶2 (MS12) and 1∶3 (MS13). Chain extended bismaleimide resins were also prepared by treating BS/BM with 4,4′-diaminodiphenyl ether in molar ratios of 1∶0.3 (BM-E and BS-E resins). These resins were also blended with bismaleimides and the curing characteristics were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry. Increase in BM content in BM∶BS blends or increase in chain extended bismaleimide content in BM-E∶BS or BS-E ∶ BM blends resulted in a reduction of melting and curing temperatures. Indication about the extent of cross-linking was obtained from solubility measurements (in DMF) of isothermally cured resins (180 °C, lh and 220 °C, lh in an air oven). Thermogravimetric analysis of samples isothermally cured at 180 °C and 220 °C (lh each) was carried out in nitrogen atmosphere. Improvement in thermal stability of chain extended bismaleimides was observed on blending.
Authors:H. S. Varma, V. Choudhary, and I. K. Varma
The crystallisation behaviour of binary blends of high density polyethylene (HDPE) and ethylene-propylene-diene tercopolymer (EPDM) was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and wide angle X-ray diffraction studies (WAXS). The rate of crystallization and nucleation of HDPE was influenced by the addition of EPDM. The% crystallinity (WAXS) increased up to 25% (w/w) addition of EPDM to HDPE. A significant improvement in tensile and impact properties was observed upon addition of EPDM to HDPE.
This paper describes the thermal behaviour of blends of bisitaconimide (I) and bisnadimide (N) resins of similar structures. Bisitaconimides/bisnadimides based on 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (E);2,2'-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]propane (B); 1,3-bis(4-aminophenyl)benzene(R) and 1,4-bis(4-aminophenyl)benzene (H) were prepared and were designated as E-I/E-N; B-I/B-N; R-I/R-N and H-I/H-N respectively. Itaconimides had lower melting points and curing temperatures than that of corresponding nadimides. The blends
of bisitaconimides and bisnadimides were prepared in the ratios of1:3, 1:1, 3:1 by solution mixing (chloroform/acetone). A
decrease in the melting point and characteristic curing temperatures was observed in the blends.
Thermal stability of cured resin blends was only marginally affected by the blend composition.
Thermal behaviour of blends based on N,N'-bis(4-itaconimidophenyl) ether (IE) and 4,4'-bis(4-allyl-2-methoxyphenoxy) benzophenone
(R1) or 4,4'-bis(2-allylphenoxy) benzophenone (R2) are described in this paper. The reactive diluent content was varied from 5-50% (mass/mass) in these blends. A decrease
in the melting point and exothermic peak temperature was observed with increasing mass percent of reactive diluent. Thermal
stability of blends was affected at high mass percentage of reactive diluents.