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  • Author or Editor: Ibolya Tóth x
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Az ember életét végigkísérő „személyes daimón” gondolata először Platónnál jelenik meg a görög filozófiai hagyományban. A platóni corpus idevágó szöveghelyeit megvizsgálva azt találjuk, hogy az elképzelés komoly változáson esett át Platón filozófiáján belül, azonban az alapgondolat végig ugyanaz marad: a személyes daimón az ember sorsának a beteljesítője. Platón utódai megpróbálták mesterük olykor ellentmondásosnak tűnő elképzeléseit összeegyeztetni egymással. A tanulmányban sorra veszem azokat a szövegeket, amelyek a személyes daimón kérdésével foglalkoznak. Ezek a művek középplatonikus és újplatonikus szerzőktől maradtak ránk. A szövegek arra mutatnak, hogy a platonizmus egyes korszakaiban a személyes daimón elképzelése bizonyos sajátosságokat hordoz: míg a középső platonizmusban Sókratés daimonionjának az alakjával összeolvadva az erkölcsös életre való buzdításra szolgál, addig az újplatonizmusban a lélek megszabadulásában játszik szerepet.

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It is commonly held among scholars that Aśoka’s Minor Rock Edicts were the king’s first attempts at engraving his messages on stone, and as such, they represent the earliest evidence for writing in India. While this may be true, it has not been duly emphasised that the text of the Minor Rock Edicts, in several versions as we have it, shows considerable traces of influence by the Major Rock Edicts and Pillar Edicts. Particular instances for such an influence in the text are the intrusion of the key term dhaṃma or the use of a general formulaic language characteristic of the later edicts. In our discussion, we wish to bring out some of these “Major” trends in the Minor Rock Edicts, making proposals for new interpretations and reading in Minor Rock Edicts I and II. On a similar basis, we will propose placing the Greco-Aramaic edict from Kandahar in the context of the Minor Rock Edicts, and try to account for the elements which may be derived from the Major Rock Edicts by the same scribal procedure as can be supposed to have been at work in formulating the text of the Minor Rock Edicts.

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Authors: Nikolette Szücs, Ibolya Varga, A. Patócs, M. Tóth, Csilla Jakab, Edit Gláz and K. Rácz

To study the usefulness of 6β-hydroxycortisol (6βOHF) measurements for assessing hepatic drug metabolizing enzyme activity, plasma 6βOHF and cortisol were measured in 22 patients with alcoholic liver disease after at least 2 weeks of alcohol abstinence, in 5 patients with severe Cushing's syndrome and in 12 healthy non-drinker subjects. Blood samples were drawn under resting conditions during midnight, in the morning at 0800 h, after a 1-mg overnight dexamethasone test and after ACTH administration. Plasma cortisol and 6βOHF were determined with radioimmunoassay. In patients with alcoholic liver disease, the plasma cortisol levels at midnight and 0800 h, as well as after the administration of dexamethasone and ACTH were not different from corresponding values measured in non-drinker controls. In addition, these patients with alcoholic liver disease had similar plasma 6βOHF levels at midnight, 0800 h and after dexamethasone administration as compared to corresponding values in controls. By contrast, ACTH administration in patients with alcoholic liver disease resulted in a significantly (p<0.05) larger increase of plasma 6βOHF (from 106±22 to 1102±106 ng/dl, mean ± SE) as compared to that found in controls (from 74±3 to 337±76 ng/dl). The markedly increased 6βOHF response to ACTH administration in patients with alcoholic liver disease was similar to that measured in patients with severe Cushing's syndrome, in whom increased and non-suppressible plasma cortisol levels were accompanied by markedly elevated plasma 6βOHF levels. These results indicate that alcohol abstinence in patients with alcoholic liver disease is associated with an exaggerated 6βOHF response to ACTH and that this abnormality may prove to be a clinically useful parameter for a sensitive detection of altered drug metabolism present in these patients.

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