New Invented Apocriphes and the Folklore. The Roast Cock Crows
. “It happened on the day of the Holy Supper, that Lord Christ was served a roast cock, and when Judas left to sell the Lord, he ordered the cock to rise and follow Judas, and the cock did accordingly, then reported to Lord Christ how Judas betrayed him, and because of this it is said to be allowed to follow him to Paradise.”A miracle-story of apocryphal origin (supposedly
Act of Peter
), transformed into a subject with a typical paradoxical element, became popular in the oriental Christianity and in medieval Europe: this is how it got into the apocryphal New Testament narratives; among others into the newly discovered Ethiopian
Book of the Cock
, some early Coptic fragments and the medieval manuscripts of the
Gospel of Nicodemus
as well. The purpose of the present study is to document this unusual process (a story from an apocryphal source is transformed during traditional transmission, and finds its way into some versions of other apocryphal texts). The data attesting to the presence of the characteristic motif in orality are especially valuable. Conscious fieldwork and records from the 19
centuries reveal the oral variations, which take the form of an origin legend, aiming at an explanation of the world.
The study gives a survey of the history of research on the legend type mentioned in the title, in Hungary and abroad, and makes the reader acquainted with the newly published Hungarian texts and theories. Towards the end of the 19th century comparative philology possessed a great number of data about the dualistic legend of the creation of the earth. Dragomanov's monograph (based on Veselovskii's and others thorough exploratory work to some extent, itself a synopsis) appeared and was extended in the other great comprehensive study of the century, Dähnhardt's Natursagen. The problematic issues in the research have been the written sources. The sacred books of the Bogomils do not draw up the dualistic creation legend of the earth in the form it is known from the folklore: the only apocryphal document that actually contains that form is the one titled Svitok božestvennyx knig [Bundle of Divine Books], or O Tiveriadskom more [About the Tiberian Sea] - but it can be found under different titles as well. In the last years a debate about its origin has formed. Likewise, in case of the Hungarian texts we could just ignore the problem of when and where they came from: they simply exist, are rich in variations, beautiful and a part of Hungarian culture. And yet, Hungarian researchers are constantly intrigued by this question; what sort of culture did we have of our own at the time of the conquest, what is the link that connects us to our relatives? The creation legend of the earth cannot be examined as an independent typological unit. The Slavic apocrypha remain the basis for further research; the texts are supplemented with two important elements. First of all the whale-motive requires further elaboration, then the story of the creation of mankind and the Noah-legends require more comprehensive examinations. All the more so since Hungarian folklore, with the new results of research, presents an unbelievably rich collection of this kind of material. The myth of the creation of the earth is an organically integrated element of the system of dualistic creation-legends in Hungarian folklore. Its variability indicates that, in spite of the individual, fresh borrowings, this system could not have been formed in a matter of seconds. This system goes by the surrounding peoples' culture but retains its local touch that is worth introducing.
Jelen tanulmány központi témaköre a magyar szótárkritika 1990 és 2010 között. A szótári bibliográfia összeállításához tíz, Magyarországon megjelenő folyóirat anyagát használtam fel. A vizsgált folyóiratok: Alkalmazott Nyelvtudomány, Fordítástudomány, Iskolakultúra, Magyar Nyelv, Magyar Nyelvőr, Magyar Terminológia, Magyar Tudomány, Modern Nyelvoktatás, Nyelvtudományi Közlemények és THL2.
In the past six and half years, 862 different clinical samples [sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, thorax puncture, cerebrospinal fluid and skin samples] were tested by Gen-probe amplified Mycobacterium tuberculosis direct test (MTD) or ligase chain reaction (LCR) or polymerase chain reaction (PCR). 239 parallel clinical samples were cultivated, and some samples were stained with Ziehl-Neelsen staining. 1-4 samples were tested per patient. 29 (12.13%) samples were positive and 177 (74.05%) samples were negative with both cultivation and molecular genetic methods. 2 (0.83%)samples were positive only on cultivation, and 31 (12.97%) samples were positive only with the molecular diagnostic methods. The differences are undoubtedly explained by the sensitivity of the molecular diagnostic methods.
The ARTEMIS Global Antifungal Susceptibility Program provides the collection of epidemiological data and the results of the fluconazole and voriconazole susceptibility testing of yeast isolates. Participating in this study, a total of 7318 clinical yeast isolates were tested from different geographical areas in Hungary in the period 2001 to 2003. The species isolated most frequently was C. albicans (68.8%), followed by C. glabrata (11.8%), C. tropicalis (5.7%) and C. krusei (4.6%). Isolates of C. albicans, C. kefyr, C. lusitaniae, C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis were highly susceptible to fluconazole (78.9-100%). The rates of isolation of fluconazole-resistant C. glabrata and C. krusei were higher in our study than the global mean in 2001 (28.2% and 87.5% vs. 18.3% and 70.2%, respectively). Differences were detected in the distribution of fluconazole-susceptibility data of C. glabrata isolates in the different counties of Hungary: most of the resistant isolates were observed in the eastern part of the country.
Species belonging to the filamentous fungal genus Trichoderma are well known as potential candidates for the biological control of plant pathogenic fungi and as cellulase producers of biotechnological importance. Several data were published in the last decade also about the clinical importance of this genus, indicating that Trichoderma strains may be potential opportunistic pathogens in immunocompromised patients. However, there is a lack of information about the potential virulence factors of clinical Trichoderma strains. This study was designed to examine the extracellular proteolytic enzymes of six clinical T. longibrachiatum isolates. Supernatants from induced liquid cultures of the examined strains were screened for proteolytic enzyme activities with 11 different chromogenic p-nitroaniline substrates. The production of trypsin-like, chymotrypsin-like and chymoelastase-like protease activities cleaving N-Benzoyl-L-Phe-L-Val-L-Arg-p-nitroanilide, N-Succinyl-L-Ala-L-Ala-L-Pro-L-Phe-p-nitroanilide,and N-Succinyl-L- Ala-L-Ala-L-Pro-L-Leu-p-nitroanilide, respectively, was common among the strains examined. Separation of trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like activities by column chromatography revealed, that both systems are complex consisting of several isoenzymes. The pH-dependence of these two protease systems was also studied. Based on the results, the different isoenzymes seem to have different optimal pH values. Extracellular proteolytic enzymes may be involved in the pathogenecity of Trichoderma strains as facultative human pathogens.
The fungal revolution taking place in otorhinology inspired us to study the frequency of occurrence of fungi in the nasal mucus of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients (with or without polyposis) in order to evaluate the incidence of eosinophilic fungal sinusitis in CRS patients. Ninety-six samples were examined from patients with CRS. In 74 cases mucus was collected non-invasively, and in 22 cases during operation. The Gram-stained direct smears of all samples were also evaluated. Bacteria and fungi colonizing in the mucus were detected by culturing method. The control group consisted of 50 healthy volunteers. Typical aerobic pathogenic bacteria could be isolated from 34 patients. Fifty-seven aerobic bacteria were isolated, i.e. 1.6 bacteria/positive patient with a maximum of 3 different bacteria/sample. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae. Yeasts and moulds could be detected from 79 patients (83%): Candida albicans, Candida spp., Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium spp, and Penicillium spp. were isolated most frequently. Altogether 237 yeasts and moulds were isolated, i.e. 3.0 different fungi/positive patient, with a maximum of 5 different fungi/sample. In the control group aerobic pathogens were not isolated, only apathogenic species. Fungi were isolated from 22 healthy patients (44%). These data indicate that fungi are frequently involved in the aetiology of CRS. IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to fungal allergens could not be proven in our patients.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Etest as an in vitro antifungal susceptibility test method for different moulds originating from human samples and from the environment. A total of 50 isolates (1 Acremonium, 18 Aspergillus, 2 Cladosporium, 1 Epicoccum, 15 Penicillium, 2 Scopulariopsis and 11 Trichoderma strains) were tested by the Etest. Forty-six of the tested moulds (92%) were resistant to fluconazole with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ³ 256 µg ml-1. There were strains resistant to ketoconazole among Aspergillus niger, A. ochraceus and Cladosporium spp. with MICs ? 32 µg ml-1. For fluconazole, no differences were observed using two different inocula, while for itraconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B, a 1 or less step 2-fold dilution difference in MIC was seen for the most of 10 selected strains. The MICs of fluconazole and amphotericin B obtained for Trichoderma strains by the Etest and the agar dilution method were also compared. MICs for fluconazole were in agreement, while MICs for amphotericin B were higher with 1 or 2 steps of 2-fold dilutions for most of Trichoderma strains in the case of the agar dilution method.
Cefditoren is the active form of cefditoren pivoxil, a new, broad-spectrum oral cephalosporin with strong in vitro activity against penicillin-susceptible and resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of cefditoren were determined for a special selection of S. pneumoniae isolates known to be susceptible, moderately susceptible or fully resistant to penicillin; these isolates originated from the lower respiratory tract of adults with pneumonia or the upper respiratory tract of children with or without symptoms of infection. Some of this latter group of isolates exhibited extremely high MICs to penicillin (³32 mg/l), whereas the MICs of cefditoren did not exceed 2 mg/l. The MIC50 and MIC90 of cefditoren proved to be 0.25 and 1.0 mg/l, respectively, with a range of MICs £0.015-2.0 mg/l for all the tested S. pneumoniae isolates. Its good activity suggests that cefditoren is expected to be a potent drug in infections caused by penicillin-resistant and multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae.