The author deals with an important question of the Hungarian constitutional law, which plays a relevant role during the accession process of a state of the European Union (EU). It means that the question of legal haromization always arises, when a state is going to join the EU. The author focuses on the question, whether the international law-namely the law of the EU-or the national law should be privileged in given cases. The author introduces the possible conflicts between international law and domestic law with the help of several examples. He refers to the numerous solutions of member-states of the EU and also mentions the situation of some would-be member-states, too. The author highlights the point of view that the Community law precedes the constitutions of the member-states. As a result of this the Hungarian constitution has to be modified in order to meet the requirements of the legal harmonization process, which will emerge with the access of Hungary to the EU.
The study analyses the potential effects of the Treaty on the Hungarian Constitution and its application by the Hungarian Constitutional Court, and the more general-and at the European Law’s present stage of the development unavoidable-problem of the theoretical analysis of European Law as a branch of law.The study points out that the Hungarian Constitution’s Accession Clause (Article 2/A) has not solved the problem of the primacy of Community Law, as far as the relationship between EU Law and the Hungarian Constitution is concerned, therefore the Constitutional Court encounters a problem that is increasingly difficult to resolve, when facing issues relating to the incompatibility of Hungarian statutes with EU Law. The study criticises some solutions proposed by the Constitutional Treaty (e.g. the institution of “recommendations”-(the present practice of “guidelines” etc.) which is definitely unconstitutional according to the Hungarian Constitution and its application practice by the Constitutional Court. Finally the study complements the problems thus outlined with the fact that the concept of EU Law and its various parts have not been clarified from a dogmatic perspective-the time has come to systematize this enormous material of law, especially when a Constitutional Treaty makes the attempt to summarize the legal fundaments of the unprecedented effort to develop an economic and political integration in Europe.
The study analyses two questions: the necessity of a European Constitution, and the basic content of the European Constitutional Treaty (with the aim to analyse in a separate study the potential effects of the Treaty on the Hungarian Constitution and its application by the Hungarian Constitutional Court).
The essay analyses the fourth and fifth amendments of the Hungarian Fundamental Law with special respect to the opinion of the Venice Commission and the resolution of the European Parliament. It will be pointed out that the fourth amendment transferred several legal regulations into the Fundamental Law which were previously qualified as unconstitutional by the Hungarian Constitutional Court. The Fundamental Law contains at the same time the declaration of a fundamental right and the unconstitutional limitation of it by the latter regulation. The inconsistency is evident, therefore the Constitutional Court has to choose in the future between the contradictory constitutional regulations. A possibility to solve this dilemma could be the separation of the legal norms of the constitution as lex generalis (e.g. rule of law, human dignity) and lex specialis which could not derogate the lex generalis, and ca nnot be applied accordingly.
Recent excavation and sampling in the upper part of the Felsőörs section (Balaton Highland, Hungary) yielded important ammonoid findings, identified as belonging to the genera Nevadites, Chieseiceras, Eoprotrachyceras and Falsanolcites. Several specimens of Chieseiceras chiesense were found in a dm-thick clay layer with limestone nodules, regarded as the equivalent of the “Chiesense Groove“ of the Bagolino and other sections in the Giudicarie area (North Italy). The immediately overlying limestone bed yielded Eoprotrachyceras cf. curionii and Falsanolcites cf. rieberi. Together these reliably prove the base of the Curionii Zone, corresponding to the base of the Ladinian Stage, the GSSP of which was recently established at Bagolino. The new data further improved the excellent correlation between the ammonoid records of the Felsőörs section and the Global Stratotype Section at Bagolino. Felsőörs may be considered the most important reference section for the Anisian to Ladinian boundary interval.
Authors:György Jermendy, Márton Kolossváry, Ibolya Dudás, Ádám L. Jermendy, Alexisz Panajotu, Imre F. Suhai, Zsófia D. Drobni, Júlia Karády, Ádám D. Tárnoki, Dávid L. Tárnoki, Szilard Voros, Béla Merkely, and Pál Maurovich-Horvat
Background and aims
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and carries poor long-term hepatic prognosis. Data about the role of genetic and environmental factors in the hepatic lipid accumulation are limited. The aim of the study was to evaluate the genetic and environmental impact on the hepatic lipid accumulation within a cohort of adult twin pairs.
Patients and methods
We investigated 182 twin subjects [monozygotic (MZ, n = 114) and dizygotic (DZ, n = 68) same-gender twins (age 56.0 ± 9.6 years; BMI 27.5 ± 5.0 kg/m2; females 65.9%)] who underwent computed tomography (CT) with a 256-slice scanner. Using non-enhanced CT-images, we calculated the average value of hepatic attenuation [expressed in Hounsfield unit (HU)] suggesting hepatic lipid content. Crude data were adjusted to age, sex, BMI and HbA1c values. Intra-pair correlations were established, and structural equation models were used for quantifying the contribution of additive genetic (A), common environmental (C) and unique environmental (E) components to the investigated phenotype.
The study cohort represented a moderately overweight, middle-aged Caucasian population. There was no significant difference between MZ and DZ twin subjects regarding hepatic CT-attenuation (57.9 ± 12.6 HU and 59.3 ± 11.7 HU, respectively; p = 0.747). Age, sex, BMI and HbA1c adjusted co-twin correlations between the siblings showed that MZ twins have stronger correlations of HU values than DZ twins (rMZ = 0.592, p < 0.001; rDZ = 0.047, p = 0.690, respectively). Using the structural equation model, a moderate additive genetic dependence (A: 38%, 95% CI 15–58%) and a greater unique environmental influence (E: 62%, 95% CI 42–85%) was found. Common environmental influence was not identified (C: 0%).
The results of our classical CT-based twin study revealed moderate genetic and greater environmental influences on the phenotypic appearance of hepatic steatosis, commonly referred to as NAFLD. Favorable changes of modifiable environmental factors are of great importance in preventing or treating NAFLD.
Authors:János Imre Barabás, Áron Kristóf Ghimessy, Ferenc Rényi-Vámos, Ákos Kocsis, László Agócs, László Mészáros, Dávid Pukacsik, Judit Andi, András Laki, Fanni Vörös, István Hartyánszky, Alexis Panajotu, Levente Fazekas, Zoltán Szabolcs, and Béla Merkely
A 3D tervezés és 3D nyomtatás nyújtotta lehetőségek folyamatosan bővülnek az
orvosi gyakorlatban. A technológia leggyakoribb felhasználási területe a 3D
anatómiai modellek nyomtatása sebészi döntéstámogatás céljából. Az így személyre
szabott és kinyomtatott modelleknek számos egyéb felhasználási területük van:
komplex anatómiai szituációk pontos megjelenítése, az adott beteg sebészi
beavatkozásának szimulációja a tényleges beavatkozást megelőzően, betegoktatás
és a különböző diszciplínák között az eset megbeszélésének megkönnyítése. A
technológia szívsebészeti vonatkozásában kiemelendő a kamrákat és a nagyereket
érintő elváltozások 3D anatómiai modellezése és funkcionális elemzése, míg a
mellkassebészetben az onkológiai betegek erősen vaszkularizált tumorának
eradikálásakor lehet a sebészi terápia felállításában szerepe. A virtuális és 3D
nyomtatott modellek új diagnosztikai lehetőséget jelentenek, melyek segítségével
egyes sebészi beavatkozások standardizálhatók, így személyre szabott terápiás
döntéseket lehet kidolgozni. A 3D projekt a Semmelweis Egyetemen 2018-ban
kezdődött a Semmelweis Egyetem Városmajori Szív- és Érgyógyászati Klinikájának
és az Országos Onkológiai Intézet Mellkassebészeti Osztályának kooperációja
során. A szerzők a technológia ismertetése mellett az eddigi 121 tervezés és 49
személyre szabott 3D nyomtatás során megszerzett tapasztalataikat és a
technológia orvosi szempontból való előnyeit ismertetik. Orv Hetil. 2019;