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  • Author or Editor: Irena Gaurilčikienė x
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Experiments conducted at the Lithuanian Institute of Agriculture in 2004–2005 were designed to investigate the contamination of winter rye cv. ‘Duoniai’ and triticale cv. ‘Tornado’ grain with fungi of genus Fusarium and mycotoxins produced by them as affected by the spray-applications of the crops with the fungicides propiconazole, tebuconazole, and azoxystrobin at the beginning of anthesis (BBCH 63). Having analysed winter rye and triticale grain samples for Fusarium species composition ( Fusarium avenaceum (Fr.) Sacc, F. sporotrichioides Sherb., F. poae (Peck) Wollenw, F. culmorum (W. G. Sm.) Sacc., F. graminearum Schwabe, F. solani (Mart.) Sacc., F. incarnatum (Desm.) Sacc . F. sambucinum Fuckel) were identified in rye grain — ( F. culmorum (W. G. Sm.) Sacc., F. poae (Peck) Wollenw., F. heterosporum Nees) — in triticale grain. The grain samples from winter rye plots sprayed with azoxystrobin were the most heavily affected by Fusarium (42.5%) and the highest contents of DON (691 μg kg −1 ) and T-2 toxin (153.6 μg kg −1 ) were identified in them. Tebuconazole reduced the amount of Fusarium -affected grain in rye and triticale, but did not have any effect on mycotoxin production in rye. The grain of triticale not sprayed with fungicides was more heavily contaminated with DON (427 μg kg −1 ).

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Field experiments were conducted over 3 years to assess the effects of fungicides (F) containing strobilurins (alone and in mixture with morpholine, triazoles) and triazoles (epoxiconazole or propiconazole) on winter wheat ‘Zentos’ grain quality, incidence of Fusarium head blight (FHB) in the field, grain contamination with fungi and mycotoxins. The effect of strobilurins and triazoles on the parameters tested was more dependent on the weather conditions of the growing season than on the F applied. The incidence of FHB was low in 2002 and 2003, but high in 2004. Averaged data suggest that strobilurin treatments decreased the level of FHB. In 2002, grain contamination with fungi was lower than in 2003 and 2004. The data on the impact of fungicides on post-harvest grain infection with Fusarium spp. and contamination with mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 were controversial. The fungicides only insignificantly affected protein and gluten concentration in grain, as well as sedimentation and falling number. All grain quality components were especially dependent on the year (significant at P<0.01). However, fungicide application significantly, at P<0.01, increased grain protein and gluten yields: they were higher for the strobilurin-treated plots (with a small exception) than for the untreated and those treated with propiconazole.

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