Google Scholar, the academic bibliographic database provided free-of-charge by the search engine giant Google, has been suggested as an alternative or complementary resource to the commercial citation databases like Web of Knowledge (ISI/Thomson) or Scopus (Elsevier). In order to check the usefulness of this database for bibliometric analysis, and especially research evaluation, a novel approach is introduced. Instead of names of authors or institutions, a webometric analysis of academic web domains is performed. The bibliographic records for 225 top level web domains (TLD), 19,240 university and 6,380 research centres institutional web domains have been collected from the Google Scholar database. About 63.8% of the records are hosted in generic domains like .com or .org, confirming that most of the Scholar data come from large commercial or non-profit sources. Considering only institutions with at least one record, one-third of the other items (10.6% from the global) are hosted by the 10,442 universities, while 3,901 research centres amount for an additional 7.9% from the total. The individual analysis show that universities from China, Brazil, Spain, Taiwan or Indonesia are far better ranked than expected. In some cases, large international or national databases, or repositories are responsible for the high numbers found. However, in many others, the local contents, including papers in low impact journals, popular scientific literature, and unpublished reports or teaching supporting materials are clearly overrepresented. Google Scholar lacks the quality control needed for its use as a bibliometric tool; the larger coverage it provides consists in some cases of items not comparable with those provided by other similar databases.
The objective of this work is to describe the distribution of different types of participating organizations in the health
thematic area of the 6th Framework Programme. A total of 2132 different organizations were classified according to four types
and then grouped by country. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was carried out on the percentage of funding obtained by
each type of organization. Results show a countries map plotted around the “private” and “public” principal components. It
is observed that there are countries which research is basically performed by government research centres, while others are
supported in the university activity. We conclude that the PCA is a suitable method to plot the distribution of research organizations
by country and the results could be used as a tool for theoretical studies about the scientific activity in a country.
This paper aims to explore the role of each country in the health thematic area of the 6th Framework Programme (6FP) of the
EU. We try to explain how the collaborative research processes are generated in a research programme using social network
analysis (SNA) tools. We have modelled a one-mode network set up by 2,132 organizations which participate in 601 research
projects. This network was shrunk at the country level, obtaining a network of 31 countries. Results show that there is a
strong relationship between R&D indicators and the structural position of each country in the network. The paper concludes
that the SNA techniques are a suitable tool to assess the country performance in the EU research programmes.
This paper aims to analyse the collaboration network of the 6th Framework Programme of the EU, specifically the “Life sciences,
genomics and biotechnology for health” thematic area. A collaboration network of 2,132 participant organizations was built
and several variables were added to improve the visualization such as type of organization and nationality. Several statistical
tests and structural indicators were used to uncover the main characteristic of this collaboration network. Results show that
the network is constituted by a dense core of government research organizations and universities which act as large hubs that
attract new partners to the network, mainly companies and non-profit organizations.
The emerging influence of new information and communication technologies (ICT) on collaboration in science and technology
has to be considered. In particular, the question of the extent to which collaboration in science and in technology is visible
on the Web needs examining. Thus the purpose of this study is to examine whether broadly similar results would occur if solely
Web data was used rather than all available bibliometric co-authorship data. For this purpose a new approach of Web visibility
indicators of collaboration is examined. The ensemble of COLLNET members is used to compare co-authorship patterns in traditional
bibliometric databases and the network visible on the Web. One of the general empirical results is a high percentage (78%)
of all bibliographic multi- authored publications become visible through search of engines in the Web. One of the special
studies has shown Web visibility of collaboration is dependent on the type of bibliographic multi-authored papers. The social
network analysis (SNA) is applied to comparisons between bibliographic and Web collaboration networks. Structure formation
processes in bibliographic and Web networks are studied. The research question posed is to which extent collaboration structures
visible in the Web change their shape in the same way as bibliographic collaboration networks over time. A number of special
types of changes in bibliographic and Web structures are explained.
Authors:José Ortega, Viv Cothey and Isidro Aguillo
The aim of this paper is to model and study the age of the Web using a sample of about four million of web pages from the
16 European Research Area countries obtained during 2004 and 2005. Web page time-stamp (date when the web pages were created
or last changed for last time), format and size in bytes data have been analysed. Several indicators are introduced to measure
longitudinal aspects of the Web. Half-age is proposed as a measure of the age distribution because this is found to be exponential.
“Web Update Index” and “Lifespan Index” are introduced to measure the changing rate of a small sample over time. Results show
that the British Web space has the youngest Web pages while the Greek and Belgian ones have the oldest. The study also compared
Web pages topics and found that Biology pages are more stable than Physics pages.
Authors:Isidro Aguillo, Judit Bar-Ilan, Mark Levene and José Ortega
Recently there is increasing interest in university rankings. Annual rankings of world universities are published by QS for
the Times Higher Education Supplement, the Shanghai Jiao Tong University, the Higher Education and Accreditation Council of
Taiwan and rankings based on Web visibility by the Cybermetrics Lab at CSIC. In this paper we compare the rankings using a
set of similarity measures. For the rankings that are being published for a number of years we also examine longitudinal patterns.
The rankings limited to European universities are compared to the ranking of the Centre for Science and Technology Studies
at Leiden University. The findings show that there are reasonable similarities between the rankings, even though each applies
a different methodology. The biggest differences are between the rankings provided by the QS-Times Higher Education Supplement
and the Ranking Web of the CSIC Cybermetrics Lab. The highest similarities were observed between the Taiwanese and the Leiden
rankings from European universities. Overall the similarities are increased when the comparison is limited to the European
Authors:Isidro Aguillo, José Ortega, Mario Fernández and Ana Utrilla
The Ranking Web of World Repositories (http://repositories.webometrics.info) is introduced. The objective is to promote Open access initiatives (OAI) supporting the use of repositories for scientific
evaluation purposes. A set of metrics based on web presence, impact and usage is discussed. The Ranking is built on indicators
obtained from web search engines following a model close to the Impact Factor one. The activity accounts for a 50% of the
index, including number of pages, pdf files and items in Google Scholar database, while the visibility takes into account
the external inlinks received by the repository (the other 50%). The Ranking provides the Top 300 repositories from a total
of 592 worldwide, with a strong presence of US, German and British institutional repositories and the leadership of the large
subject repositories. Results suggest the need to take into consideration other file formats and the usage information, an
option is not feasible today.
Authors:Jose Ortega, Isidro Aguillo, Viv Cothey and Andrea Scharnhorst
This paper shows maps of the web presence of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA) on the level of universities using
hyperlinks and analyses the topology of the European academic network. Its purpose is to combine methods from Social Network
Analysis (SNA) and cybermetric techniques in order to ask for tendencies of integration of the European universities visible
in their web presence and the role of different universities in the process of the emergence of an European Research Area.
We find as a main result that the European network is set up by the aggregation of well-defined national networks, whereby
the German and British networks are dominant. The national networks are connected to each other through outstanding national
universities in each country.