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  • Author or Editor: István Tóth x
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A magyar honfoglalás korának reprezentatív emléke a rakamazi díszkorong. Ennek ábrázolása, a karmaiban két kisebb madarat tartó nagy ragadozó madár alakja meglepő formai és szerkezeti hasonlóságot mutat az archaikus görög művészet Gorgó-alakjaival. A cikk erre az analógiára hívja fel a figyelmet, a téma specialistáinak hozzászólásait várva.

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Long polar fimbriae (Lpf) are recently discovered adhesins and increasingly important genetic markers of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains. The presence and genotype diversity of Lpf operons was screened in a collection of 97 Escherichia coli O157 strains representing different pathotypes, isolated from healthy cattle (n = 43) and human patients (n = 54) in several countries. Individual structural genes of Lpf were scanned by PCR, and allelic variants were detected with a recently developed typing scheme. Ninety-five strains carried at least one whole Lpf operon (genes lpf ABCD and/or lpf ABCDE). The 64 enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) and 24 enteropathogenic (EPEC) strains all carried two Lpf operons, allele 3 of lpfA1 and allele 2 of lpfA2, a combination characteristic of the O157:H7/NM serotype. Out of the 9 bovine atypical (AT; stx-, eae-) strains, 7 carried one complete Lpf operon, allele 1 of lpfA2. The atypical strains belonged to main phylogenetic groups A and B1, while the EHEC and EPEC strains were from group D. Lpf variants carried by the 72 strains of the Escherichia coli Reference Collection (ECOR) were determined with the same typing scheme. Alleles were detected in 25 strains, of which 6 were found negative for the respective Lpf operons in earlier studies. The marker value of the Lpf allelic combination for the O157:H7/NM serotype was confirmed, and further evidence was given for the presence of at least two different genetic lineages of atypical bovine E. coli O157 strains.

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Orvosi Hetilap
Authors: Imre Gerlinger, Krisztián Molnár, Nelli Nepp, István Tóth, Tamás Tóth, István Szanyi, Péter Bakó and István Pap

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Bevezetés: A subtotalis petrosectomia (STP) évtizedek óta ismert, de túlzott radikalitása és a hallásra gyakorolt kedvezőtlen hatása miatt a közelmúltig szinte feledésbe merült műtét a fülsebészet és az agyalapi sebészet határán. Az elmúlt évtizedben ez a beavatkozás számos előnye, valamint az új hallásrehabilitációs módszerekkel való kombinálhatósága miatt újra előtérbe került, hiszen számos problémás, a középfület érintő megbetegedésre nyújt végleges megoldást. Célkitűzés: Retrospektív klinikai tanulmányunkban a STP eredményességére kívántuk felhívni a figyelmet, hazai beteganyagon első alkalommal elemezve a műtét eredményességét, közreadva eddigi tapasztalainkat. Módszer: 44 betegünkön elvégzett 45 műtét adatait dolgoztuk fel. A sokrétű műtéti indikáció bemutatása mellett áttekintjük a műtét egyes lépéseit, elemezzük az audiológiai eredményeket – kitérve a különféle hallásrehabilitációs módszerekre is –, s elemezzük az előfordult komplikációkat is. Eredményeinket a nemzetközi szakirodalom tükrében is górcső alá vesszük. Eredmények: 44 betegünk közül 23 volt nő, 21 férfi. A betegek átlagéletkora 44,6 ± 20,5 év volt, átlagos követési idejük pedig 23 ± 16 hónap. Betegeink közül 25 (57%) korábban legalább két sikertelen fülműtéten esett át, 6 beteg (14%) a műtétet megelőzően már siket volt. A leggyakoribb indikáció a krónikus cholesteatomás otitis media volt. 13 betegen 14 cochlearis implantációt (23%) végeztünk, ezenfelül 6 alkalommal csontvezetéses implantátumot (BAHA) (14%) helyeztünk be; 2 betegnél (5%) kerekablak-VSB (Vibrant Soundbridge)-implantációra került sor. Komplikáció 11 betegünknél jelentkezett, ezek közül a leggyakrabban a liquorfistula (5 eset, 1%) és a sebszétválás (3 eset, 7%) fordult elő. Az audiológiai eredmények feldolgozására 3 betegünk adatai álltak rendelkezésre. Következtetés: A STP rendkívül hasznos műtéti megoldás számos, korábban jelentős problémát okozó fülészeti kórképben. Egyre növekvő népszerűségének hátterében az áll, hogy kombinálható számos modern, új hallásrehabilitációs módszerrel. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(14): 544–553.

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Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) bacteria frequently cause severe enteric diseases primarily in children and in young rabbits. Their pathogenicity for pigs has been tested by oral infection of colostrum-deprived newborn, and of severely immunosuppressed weaned pigs, but colonisation of conventional weaned pigs by porcine EPEC has not been experimentally studied. EPEC show similarities to enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) additionally carrying shiga toxin genes integrated into the chromosome by lambdoid phages. We have demonstrated earlier that the porcine EPEC prototype strain P86-1390 (O45) could be transduced in vivo (in ligated loops of weaned pigs), by Stx2 phage derived from a human EHEC. Thus, the ability of this porcine EPEC strain to colonise conventional weaned pigs under farming conditions became a question of relevance to human health. To clarify this question, four intragastric infection experiments were performed on a total of 95 conventional weaned pigs. The EPEC P86-1390 and other well-characterised porcine EPEC strains were applied to 54 pigs, leaving 41 weaned pigs as negative controls. In three experiments moderate predispositions were applied: coinfections with enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) or with low-virulence TGE coronavirus, application of fumonisin B1 with a normal therapeutic dose of dexamethasone, and the increase of soybean protein concentration in the feed. A total of 41 weaned pigs served as negative controls inoculated with a commensal porcine E. coli. Housing conditions simulated the farm environment. As an overall result, ileal segments of 18.5% of infected pigs were shown to be colonised by EPEC, while no EPEC were detected in the ilea of controls. Among predisposing factors occurring on farms, feed protein content increased by 20% (26.3% crude protein, provided by 48% soybean meal) seemed to enhance EPEC colonisation and resulted in the mobilisation of spontaneous latent EPEC/ETEC infection. The results indicate that under normal farm conditions porcine EPEC may colonise conventional weaned pigs by inducing ileal attaching effacing (AE) lesions with reasonable frequency, without clinical signs. The results also suggest that conventional weaned pigs may represent undetected reservoirs of porcine EPEC, potentially giving rise to the emergence of new types of EHEC due to natural transduction by Stx phages.

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The archaeological research of fortress Salgó, which is located near Salgótarján happened between 1981 and 2006 in two parts. While the results of the excavation of the top castle got a publication in 1984 already, so long this is the first summary about the research of the whole upper castle. The fortress was build around 1300 by way one of the Kacsics family branches. From 1460 it got into more considerable aristocratic families possession. The Ottoman army occupied it in 1554, got with a siege again onto Christian hands in 1593. In 1593 arose thick destruction layer, from which provenienced many finds. These objects (stove tiles, ceramic pots and metal finds) are characteristic memories of the early modern age from the closer area.

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A szerzők ismertetik a legfontosabb söripari tulajdonságok vizsgálatait az őszi árpánál. A klasszikus minőségi kritériumok, mint a fehérjetartalom és az osztályozottság mellett a dolgozat további, a söripar számára fontos jellemzőket is bemutat. Szemlélteti az egyes minőségi tulajdonságokra ható tényezőket. E tulajdonságok ismerete és összefüggése, valamint az őszi és tavaszi sörárpa termesztéstechnológiája fontos mind az árpanemesítők, mind a növénytermesztők számára.

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Seeing the forest through different trees: A social psychological perspective of work addiction

Commentary on: Ten myths about work addiction (Griffiths et al., 2018)

Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: István Tóth-Király, Beáta Bőthe and Gábor Orosz

We live in exciting times for the scientific study of work addiction, given its increased relevance and the diverse perspectives one might take to approach this phenomenon. Simultaneously, this field does not appear to be unified as a result of several misleading myths, which are addressed by the debate paper of Griffiths et al. (2018). In response, we would like to complement this study by proposing that the construct of interest should be more precisely identified in the context of related constructs and that an integrative framework should be applied, which is able to take into account not just the micro-level characteristics (i.e., individual differences), but meso- (i.e., environmental factors) and macro-level (i.e., societal factors) ones as well.

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Cytolethal distending toxins (CDT) are considered the prototype of inhibitory cyclomodulins, and are produced by a wide range of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, including Escherichia coli strains of various sero- and pathotypes. CDT is a heterotripartite toxin consisting of three protein subunits, CdtA, CdtB and CdtC. The active subunit, CdtB has DNase activity and causes DNA damage and cell cycle arrest in the target cell. However, several studies have highlighted different roles for CdtA and CdtC subunits. In order to reveal the necessity of CdtA and CdtC subunit proteins in the CDT-specific phenotype, expression clones containing the cdt-V subunit genes were constructed. Using cell culture assays, we demonstrated that clones expressing only the CdtB subunit or in combination with only CdtA or CdtC were unable to trigger the specific cell cycle arrest and changes in cell morphology in HeLa cells. At the same time, the recombinant clone harbouring the whole cdt-V operon caused all the CDT-associated characteristic phenotypes. All these results verify that all the three CDT subunit proteins are necessary for the genotoxic effect caused by CDT-V.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: István Fekete, Csaba Varga, Zsolt Kotroczó, Zsolt Krakomperger and János Tóth
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