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Syntagmas in Croatian have been discussed in three Croatian grammars. In the first two, little attention was paid to them, while the third grammar gives a detailed but rather complicated description of syntagmas. In the latter analysis, several incompatible aspects are mixed, some linguistic factors contradict each other and a number of phenomena are simply ignored by the authors. In this paper, therefore, collocations of words are described in the theoretical framework of dependency grammars. In accordance with this, the term “phrase” is used throughout this work. I included several collocations that have been ignored by all the other researchers. The coherent analysis relies exclusively on linguistic criteria, other (semantic or syntactic) aspects are not taken into account. The description of these collocations is based on dependency connections between words. In order to illustrate this, the present paper discusses the noun phrase in full detail.

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Historical lexicography and history of words fail to examine the validity of the words in old dictionaries. This gap is attempted to be filled up with this present study on the five-language dictionary (Latin, Italian, German, Croatian, and Hungarian) compiled by Faust Vrančić, a Croatian author, published in 1595, which is analysed by seven criteria. The words analysed are equivalent to Latin nouns and adjectives. The Latin lexemes comprise more than half of the entries, which is a substantial sample to draw general conclusions. It is pointed out in the study that the dictionary provided help primarily in understanding Latin texts. It may have been to the greatest use of speakers of the four (non-Latin) vulgar languages at mother-tongue competence or those who were familiar with them. The dictionary seems not to have been adequate in all cases for those interested in these languages to enlarge their vocabulary.

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This paper analyzes Hungarian–Croatian equivalents in Vrančić’s dictionary. It concludes that Vrančić did not know the Croatian equivalents of some of the Latin words, so he created new words on the pattern of the corresponding Hungarian lexemes. His expressions can be classified as various types of loanshifts. It is only his loan translations that prove to be correct, his suggestions are usually wrong either in semantic or functional aspects. The given examples also cast light on the fact that Vrančić is confident, he does not hesitate to create new words and he is ready to ignore some of the rules of word formation as well.

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In the 18th century, 23 plays of Molière’s were translated into Croatian in Dubrovnik/Ragusa. They were the first Molière translations in a Slavonic-speaking area. Despite the fact that the language of the translations is Croatian, there are several parts in the text which are in Italian. The paper aims at analyzing the role of some longer parts of texts (such as a full-length dialogue, a group of sentences, main clauses, subordinate clauses, and phrases) in Italian in the play Monsieur de Pourceaugnac/Jovadin. The Italian textual elements reflect the world of trade in the Mediterranean and the world of law and medicine in Dubrovnik/Ragusa.

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The Croatian Faust Vrančić published a five-language dictionary (Latin–Italian–German–Croatian–Hungarian) in the year 1595. This study examines to what extent the author knew these languages, apart from Latin. Not only does it scrutinise the knowledge of words of Vrančić but it also restores his awareness of the rules of the different languages, relying us several linguistic data. Vrančić must have had an excellent and active command of all the four languages, as the study finds it. The only difference in his awareness of languages can merely be pointed out in his vocabulary, concerning each. He knew the Hungarian language best and the Croatian language least. It can also be pointed out that the author was very resourceful in the field of lexicography.

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Historical lexicography and etymology fail to examine the validity of words in old dictionaries. This gap is attempted to be filled up with the present study on the five-language dictionary (Latin–Italian–German–Croatian–Hungarian) published in 1595 and compiled by a Croatian author Faust Vrančić. In the paper, seven criteria are used. The analyzed words are equivalent to Latin nouns and adjectives. The Latin lexemes comprise more than half of the entries, which is a substantial sample to draw general conclusions. It is pointed out in the study that the dictionary provided help primarily in understanding Latin texts. It may have been to the greatest use of speakers of the four (non-Latin) vulgar languages with mother-tongue competence or those who were familiar with them. The dictionary seems not to have been adequate in all cases for those interested in these languages to enlarge their vocabulary.

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Following K. Schumann's classification, the paper establishes 8 of the 23 possible types of loan translations and semantic loans in the Renaissance Croatian drama. At the same time, two new types of calquing are also identified: “Lehngebrauch der Rektionen von Verben und Substantiven” and “syntaktische Lehngebrauch der Rektionen der Lehnwörter”. In using loan translations or semantic loans the authors' individual choice is for the lexical types, while in terms of syntactic loans the widespread and generally accepted forms are preferred.

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The five-language dictionary of Faust Vrančić is the first one which includes separate Croatian word entries. As in the sixteenth century there was no standard Croatian orthography, that of Faust Vrančić is worth studying because the dictionaries influenced the orthography of their users. In the present article, the author examines eight letters signifying consonants. For these letters, there cannot be any precedent in the phonetic and orthographic system of Latin. First of all, the graphics of the letters is presented and the graphemes of Hungarian origin are identified. These latter can be divided into two groups: firstly, the letters loaned by Vrančić from Hungarian-language writings directly, and secondly, those which, although being of Hungarian origin, were taken from the Kaikavian Croatian books printed before the publication of the dictionary. Contrary to the opinion widespread in Croatian scholarly literature, for his work Vrančić did not invent any new letter but consciously selected graphemes extant in other languages.

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Sprachgeschichte und Sprachkontakte in den Forschungen von István Nyomárkay

Language Contacts and Language History in István Nyomárkay’s Research

Studia Slavica
István Vig

Der wissenschaftliche Nachlass des Akademikers István Nyomárkay (1937–2020) umfasst etwa 280 Publikationen. Aufgrund des begrenzten Umfangs fokussiert sich diese Studie auf die Darstellung seiner wichtigsten Monografien.

Im Bereich der Sprachkontakte wird die morphologische Integration der Internationalismen in das Sprachsystem der kroatoserbischen / serbokroatischen Schriftsprache in der ersten Monographie (1984) analysiert. Viele der betrachteten Internationalismen, die letztendlich lateinischen Ursprung haben, wurden nicht direkt aus dem Lateinischen übernommen, sondern wurden aus dem Deutschen, Italienischen und Französischen entlehnt. Dieses Buch war derzeit die erste große Synthese in diesem Bereich.

Die folgende Monographie (1989) erforscht die Entstehung der neuen Zivilisationswörter der kroatischen Sprache in der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Jahrhunderts. Die meisten Ausdrücke wurden aus politischen und kulturellen Gründen nach ungarischen Mustern geprägt. Sie sind teilweise Lehnprägungen, teilweise Neubildungen. Bei ihrer Entstehung wirkten Impulse von ungarischen Vorbildern mit.

Auf das Gebiet der Sprachkultur gehört das Buch von 2002. Hier wird der Einfluss einer 1779 in Wien veröffentlichten deutschen Grammatik auf slowenische, slowakische, kroatische und ungarische Grammatiken analysiert. Obwohl zahlreiche Elemente der deutschen Grammatik übernommen wurden, passten die Autoren andere Befunde in modifizierter Form ihren eigenen Sprachen an.

Unter Nyomárkays lexikographischen Werken ragt das sprachhistorische Wörterbuch des Burgenlandkroatischen (1996) hervor. Das 4864 Stichwörter umfassende Wortmaterial stammt ausschließlich aus 64 Quellen. Das Wörterbuch, ein wichtiges Werk für die Sprachgeschichte, dient auch als geeignetes Hilfsmittel zum Lesen alter Texte.

Die letzte Monographie (2007) des Autors über die Geschichte der kroatischen bzw. serbischen Sprache gehört in den Bereich der Sprachgeschichte. Es ist die erste Synthese der Geschichte der erwähnten Sprachen auf Ungarisch. Es handelt sich um ein im leserfreundlichen Stil geschriebenes wissenschaftliches Werk, das ungarischen Linguisten und Studierenden gewidmet ist.

Es ist sehr wichtig hervorzuheben, dass alle oben betrachteten Bücher auf der Analyse von zahlreichen Quellen beruhen.

Academic István Nyomárkay (1937–2020) left a great legacy of his oeuvre, consisting of more than 280 publications. For size limits, this study presents only a few of the most important domains of Professor Nyomárkay’s research, based on some of his books.

In the field of language contacts, his first monograph (1984) examines the integration of international loanwords into the morphological structure of the Croato-Serbian / Serbo-Croatian literary language. These international loanwords, eventually, are of Latin origin. Many of them are not Latin loanwords but they got adopted into the Croato-Serbian literary language by the mediation of the German, Italian, and French languages. This book was the first major synthesis in this field at that time.

The next monograph (1989) examines the formation of the new words in the vocabulary related to Croatian civilization in the second half of the 19th century. Due to political and cultural reasons, the new expressions were created mainly on Hungarian patterns. Some of them are calques, other ones are new word formations inspired by Hungarian.

The book published in 2002 pertaining to language-culture research investigates the influence of a German grammar published in Vienna in 1779 onto the grammars of Slovenian, Slovak, Croatian, and Hungarian. The authors took over many elements of the German grammar and adapted them to their own language each, with some modifications of several of its statements.

From among the lexicographical works of Nyomárkay’s, the historical dictionary of the literary language of the Croatians in Burgenland is an outstanding piece (1996). It contains 4,864 entries, which were taken from 64 resources. Apart from the fact that the dictionary is a work of salient importance from language historical point of view, it also offers considerable help in reading old texts.

The last monograph of the author on the history of the Serbian and Croatian languages (2007) pertains to the domain of language history. This is the first summary of the history of the aforementioned languages written in Hungarian. It is a piece of scholarly work in an easy to read style, addressing linguists and university students in Hungary.

It is very important to point out that each of the books considered above is based on the analysis of numerous sources.

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Es ist nicht alles Weiß, was so zu sein scheint •

Bemerkungen zur Interpretation einiger ungarischer und kroatischer Örtlichkeitsnamen

Not all is White that Looks White: Remarks on the Interpretation of Some Hungarian and Croatian Place-Names

Studia Slavica
István Vig

Adjektive, die Farben bezeichnen, kommen häufig in Örtlichkeitsnamen vieler Sprachen vor. Unter ihnen befindet sich auch das Adjektiv weiß. Die Motivation und Bedeutung des Farbadjektivs weiß in der Namensgebung einiger Örtlichkeitsnamen bilden den Gegenstand dieser Untersuchung. Der vorliegende Aufsatz ist in zwei Teile gegliedert. Im ersten Teil wird den Beweggründen für die Wahl des Adjektivs weiß in einigen ungarischen, kroatischen und serbischen Örtlichkeitsnamen nachgegangen. Im zweiten Teil werden einige kroatische Ortsnamen behandelt, in denen eine Komponente nur scheinbar die Bedeutung ‘weiß’ hat. In der Wirklichkeit haben die Denotate dieser Örtlichkeitsnamen keine weiße Farbe.

Zur ersten Gruppe gehören die ungarischen Örtlichkeitsnamen Székesfehérvár, Gyulafehérvár, Nándorfehérvár, das kroatische Biograd na moru und das serbische (und auch kroatische) Beograd. Sie sind Zusammensetzungen aus fehér, bio- / beo- ‘weiß’ + vár, grad ‘Burg’. Nach allgemeiner Meinung der Fachliteratur bezieht sich das Adjektiv weiß auf die weiße oder helle Farbe der Steine der Burgen.

In der ungarischen Sprachwissenschaft wurde auch erforscht, wie alt das Kompositum fehérvár sein könnte. Es wurde festgestellt, dass die Magyaren schon drei Burgen bzw. befestigte Städte kannten, bevor sie sich am Ende des 9. Jahrhunderts im Karpatenbecken niederließen.

Zwei Örtlichkeitsnamen davon befanden sich auf chasarischem Gebiet, Sarïγsïn und Šarkel / Sarkel. Der zweite Örtlichkeitsname hat die Bedeutung ‘hell, gelb, bleich, weiß’. Der erste ist ein Kompositum von sarï, sarïγ ‘weiß’ + kil / käl ‘Haus’. Nach der bisherigen Erklärung hätte die Komponente sarï, sarïγ eine Beziehung zur weißen Farbe der Festung. Diese Meinung beruht auf der fehlerhaften Interpretation der schriftlichen Quelle. Erstens: die Mauern der Burg wurden aus roten Ziegeln gebaut. Zweitens: die jüngsten turkologischen Forschungsergebnisse weisen darauf hin, dass die Farbe Weiß eine symbolische Bedeutung hatte. Sie ist die symbolische Farbe von Burgen und Gebäuden, die auf ein gehobenes und großes Prestige hindeuten.

Beim dritten Beispiel handelt es sich um den Namen einer Festung am Dnister-Liman, der in verschiedenen Sprachen wiedergegeben wird. Hier wird die Motivation der Komponente weiß durch die hellgraue Mauer der Festung bestätigt.

Fazit. Die Existenz des Namens fehérvár war schon in der urmagyarischen Periode der ungarischen Sprache möglich. Man kann nicht entscheiden, wie er entstand: als Lehnübersetzung oder aufgrund einer gene-rellen Anschauung.

Unter den analysierten kroatischen Örtlichkeitsnamen befinden sich Städtenamen und geographische Namen. Die Stadt Pélmonostor gehörte bis 1918 zu Ungarn. Der kroatische Name ist eine behördlich festgelegte Bezeichnung. Die Komponente monostor wurde übersetzt und der Eigenname Pél wurde durch das ähnlich lautende Adjektiv beli ‘weiß’ ersetzt. Das Adjektiv hat keinen Zusammenhang mit Pél. Der Stadtname Bjelovar ist ungarischer Herkunft (< Bélavár). Der Eigenname Béla wurde volksetymologisch als kroatisch bijel, bijela ‘weiß’ interpretiert und ersetzt. Bei den geographischen Namen Rt (‘Kap’) Bela und Uvala (‘Bucht’) Bela ist die Komponente Bela nicht als Adjektiv, sondern als ein italienischer Familienname zu interpretieren.

Adjectives that denote colours are common in toponyms in many languages. Among them we can also find the adjective white. The motivation and meaning of the colour white in the naming of some place-names form the subject of this study. The present paper is divided into two parts. The first part explores the motivations for choosing the adjective white in some Hungarian, Croatian, and Serbian place-names. The second part deals with some Croatian place-names in which a component only seems to have the meaning ‘white’. In reality, the denotates of these toponyms have no white colour.

The first group includes the Hungarian toponyms Székesfehérvár, Gyulafehérvár, Nándorfehérvár, the Croatian Biograd na moru, and the Serbian (and also Croatian) Beograd. They are compositions of fehér, bio- / beo- ‘white’ + vár, grad ‘castle’. According to the general opinion of the literature on the subject, the adjective white refers to the white or light colour of the stones of the castles.

Hungarian linguists have also researched how old the composite fehérvár could be. It was found that the Magyars already knew three castles or fortified cities before they settled in the Carpathian Basin at the end of the 9th century.

Two of these place-names were located on Khazar territory, Sarïγsïn and Šarkel / Sarkel. The second place-name has the meaning ‘light, yellow, pale, white’. The first is a composition of sarï, sarïγ ‘white’ + kil / käl ‘house’. According to the previous explanation, the component sarï, sarïγ could be related to the white colour of the fortress. This opinion is based on the erroneous interpretation of the written source. First, the walls of the castle were built of red bricks. Second, recent Turkological research suggests that the colour white had a symbolic meaning. It is the symbolic colour of castles and buildings that indicate an upscale and great prestige.

The third example is the name of a fortress on the Dniester Liman, which is reproduced in different languages. Here the motivation of the component white is confirmed by the light gray wall of the fortress.

Conclusions. The existence of the name fehérvár was already possible in Proto-Hungarian. One cannot decide how it was created: as a loan translation or on the basis of a general view.

Among the analyzed Croatian toponyms are city names and geographical names. The town of Pélmonostor belonged to Hungary until 1918. Its Croatian name is an officially defined designation. The component monostor was translated and the proper name Pél was replaced by the similar adjective beli ‘white’. The adjective has no connection with Pél. The city name Bjelovar is of Hungarian origin (< Bélavár). The proper name Béla was folk-etymologically interpreted and replaced by Croatian bijel, bijela ‘white’. In the case of the geographical names Rt (‘Cape’) Bela and Uvala (‘Bay’) Bela, the component Bela is not to be interpreted as an adjective but as an Italian surname.

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