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  • Author or Editor: István Zimonyi x
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The Carpathian Basin and the lower Volga were once centres of nomadic tribal confederacies and empires, which had a strong impact on mediaeval European history. As for the former, the Huns, Avars and Hungarians are well worth mentioning. The Hungarians were converted in 1000 and with their Christianisation entered Latin Europe. The Khazars played an important role in the history of Kievan Rus', whereas the Golden Horde had a basic effect on the formation of Russia. The peoples of the steppe played an important role during the formation of Europe, a fact which has been neglected in historiography.

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In dem Aufsatz werden zwei Grundbegriffe der Verfassung des mittelalterlichen Türkenreichs, bodun und el, analysiert. Das Wort bodun bedeutete einen Gentilverband, in dem der politische Rahmen der Stammeskonföderation mit dem ethnischen Zusammengehörigkeitsgefühl verstärkt wurde. Die sekundäre Bedeutung des Wortes war Volk, Leute und davon entwickelte sich einfaches Volk, Kriegsvolk, Hofleute. Im Mittelalter unterschieden die Nomaden den Gentilverband mit einer souveränen Machtorganisation (el) von dem, der untergeordnet wurde. Der Begriff el verfügte über nur politische Konnotation und bedeutete Reich, Großmacht, souveräne Macht.

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The city name Man Kermen in The Secret History of the Mongols is identified with Kiev in the chapters concerning the great western Mongol campaign against Eastern Europe. It is based on the datum of Rashīd al-Dīn: ‘the great city of the Rus, which was called Man-Kermen.’ It is beyond doubt that the Cumans called Kiev as Man Kermen meaning Great Town in Turkic as the spiritual and ecclesiastic center of Kievan Rus. However, there is another possibility. The capital of the Volga Bulghars in the first decades of the 13th century has been excavated near to village Biljarsk. It is called by the contemporary sources as Velikij Gorod in the Russian annals, magna civitas in the work of the Hungarian friar, Julian both meaning Great Town.

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