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  • Author or Editor: Ivan Šimkovic x
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Abstract

Sugar beet residues and various additives were used to prepare panels by forming the semi-dry or wet mixtures and pressing the composites at a temperature of 150 °C and pressures of 100–5410 kPa for up to 105 min. The highest panel density and second highest thickness were observed when a combination of calcium hydroxide and boric acid were used as additives using the semi-dry procedure. SEM images revealed that at pressures over 1000 kPa the cell wall structure of sugar beet was completely unrecognizable. The FTIR results indicated that the non-cellulosic polysaccharides contributed significantly to the properties of the panels by acting as adhesives. The best flame retardant parameters were also obtained with the calcium hydroxide/boric acid formulation. In comparison to composites prepared from recycled paper and mixtures of sugar beet shreds with recycled paper, higher density panels were prepared at lower pressure from sugar beet sources.

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Abstract

Paper sheets impregnated with flame retardants made from agricultural residues and other additives were studied with the cone calorimeter. The use of sugar beet ethanol eluent (SBE), CaCl2, and ZnCl2 lowered the peak rate of heat release (PRHR) the most in comparison to water treated material. The average effective heat of combustion (AEHC) was lowered by most of our treatments with the exception of BMIC (butylmethylimidazolium chloride)/starch (BMS). The average mass loss rate was lowered by all the treatments, but the most by the use of ZnCl2 and CaCl2 treatments. Mass losses were the least with SBE, CaCl2/NaOH/starch, and CaCl2/NaOH treatments. The BMS sample exhibited the greatest total heat release while SBE samples gave the smallest value of the parameter. The flame retarding effect of SBE was ascribed to the presence of ferulates which prevented the formation of volatile products by condensing into polycyclic aromatic residue.

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