Mint számos kutatás kimutatta, a tanulással kapcsolatba hozható motivációk kulturális konstruktumok. A tanulmány az euro-amerikai és a kelet-ázsiai kultúra között jellegzetes különbségeket mutatja be ezen a téren. A kelet-ázsiai tanulók kevésbé konzisztens és kevésbé pozitív énképet hordoznak, mint nyugati társaik, ám – szemben azzal, ahogy a nyugati tanulási motivációelméletek alapján azt várni lehetne – a teljesítményüket ez nem befolyásolja negatív irányban, ami arra mutat, hogy tanulási motivációjuk viszonylag független ezektől a tényezőktől. A teljesítménymagyarázó attribúció terén a kelet-ázsiai diákok nagy hangsúlyt helyeznek az erőfeszítésre, kevésbé a képességek szerepére; a képességeket változó entitásnak tekintik, a teljesítményt pedig erősebben a szociális környezetükhöz kapcsolva ragadják meg, mint nyugati társaik, kevésbé individuálisan azoknál. A kelet-ázsiai tanulók esetében kevésbé egyértelműen választható el egymástól a külső és a belső motiváció; tanulási motivációs rendszerük leginkább a többszörös célelmélet fogalmi keretében magyarázható meg, vagyis csak a hagyományos nyugati külső/ belső motivációelmélet dichotómiájának meghaladásával. Az előzőekkel összhangban, társas tanulási helyzetekben például a kelet-ázsiai tanulók kevésbé követik a társas lazsálás elvét, mint nyugati társaik. A fenti példák is azt mutatják, hogy a kelet-ázsiai tanulók tanulási motivációs rendszere nem kielégítően magyarázható meg a nyugati pedagógiai pszichológiai magyarázóelvekkel, illetve hogy ez utóbbiakon a maguk etnocentrizmusa miatt gyökeresen változtatni kell, különben nem tudják kellő megbízhatósággal megmagyarázni a motiváció jelenségét a globalizálódó világban.
Research on private supplementary tutoring, widely known as shadow education, has a long history but only gathered intensity during the present century. This research has shown much diversity in the scale and nature of shadow education, but further mapping and analysis is needed to reduce gaps in understanding and to keep up with changes. The collection of articles in this special issue of the journal presents insights from parts of Africa, Asia and Europe; and this introductory essay juxtaposes these insights with Hungarian research. The domain of shadow education has many tensions, with both positive and negative implications for individuals, families, the field of education, and societies as a whole. International research helps with understanding these tensions, and in due course with appropriate action to address them. In the process, much can be learned from counterparts in different systems, countries and cultures, not only about the nature and impact of shadow education but also about methodological approaches to research.
In this article the author defines shadow education, as only the most important
examination subjects’ out-of-school, for-fee education activities belong here.
After this he introduces some of the theoretical debates and important research
tendencies, topics, methods and results of the first two decades of the field.
Then he offers a new approach to reach a better understanding of shadow
education and other educational phenomena, and two practical methods to reduce
the negative effects of shadow education: he argues for starting educational
behavior reseach, also for training so-called educational space specialist, and
to introduce a well-balanced educational voucher system.
According to Gagné (2018), talent development programs and mixed talent development activities (provisions) are universally used tools in talent education. While the former are long-term talent development activities that comprehensively support the development of learners through several age and developmental stages, typically organized around one or a few basic concepts in talent development, the latter are short-term developmental activities, based on a smaller theme or activity element, and they are mosaically selected by the students. The present study focuses on talent development programs. The author presents two-two talent development programs in each of four areas, giving examples of leadership talent development, public and higher education talent education, offline and online talent management, and talent management for minority students. Although one example of the article shows the changes that are taking place in talent management as a result of globalization, as we understand it today, it can be said in general that today’s talent management is moving towards becoming increasingly global at the international level: no suitable opportunity for talent identification, no person there, no social group, no training opportunity should be left out of the possibilities of talent management, rejecting many features of the previous, rather elitist lines. Analyzing the new developments, at the end of the study, the author formulates his opinion that after the current rapid development in the field of talent management, the emergence of artificial intelligence will bring a truly Copernican turn in talent management.
The relationship between shadow education and competition has been discussed and studied widely by educational experts and policy makers in Japan. One major topic has been the role that shadow education plays in social inequality by creating winners and losers. Another is related to competition and students' psychological health; and a third concerns the cause-and-effect relationships between cram/preparatory schools and competition. The present paper focuses on students' perspectives and describes an empirical study carried out with 211 Japanese senior high school students and 145 university students. The students answered open-ended questions about their cram/preparatory school attendance, and were asked to describe how they perceived the relationship between cram/preparatory schools and competition. The free descriptive answers were content-analysed and categorized. The majority of the respondents not only saw a relationship between the two but also listed a number of functions that increased students' competitive advantage. Educational experts' and sociologists' common criticism that shadow education has detrimental effect on fairness or equal chances in education was hardly at all expressed. Relatively few students expressed doubts or emphasized the negative or harmful side of cram/preparatory school attendance and competition. The results call the attention to the importance of studying different aspects of shadow education more in-depth from the direct “users'” i.e, the students' perspective as well.
This paper summarizes the trends in research about student experiences in out-of-school time (OST) in countries of Europe. The analysis is based on a review of the content of research papers published between 1999 and 2019 in about 36 European countries. OST is recognized as an important aspect of students’ educational experiences that deserves increased research attention. A significant portion of students in all countries participate in OST activities either to improve their school performance or to engage in social activities. Under conditions where parents and students believe that the formal school system is weak, the OST educational experiences may be considered to be necessary to make a significant or necessary contribution to a student’s success compared with formal school itself. Because OST activities are undertaken in a free market their form and structure vary because of differences in the countries’ historical development, condition of public education, and the social, economic, cultural, and political factors that influence the educational systems. The analysis presents examples of how in some European countries conceptual models of OST have been expanded, adapted OST practices for regular school systems, and evaluated the outcomes. This review of the definitions of OST, of evaluations of its impact, and of the evidence for its effect on equality of educational opportunity throughout 36 European countries concludes that the studies provide contradictory messages. Greater consistency in conceptual development could be increased over time as researchers across countries review each other’s strategies and share methods and results.
While the L2 Motivational Self System (L2MSS) (Dörnyei, 2005, 2019) has been researched extensively in the Hungarian context, it has not been used to test international students' motivational dispositions towards learning foreign languages. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to report a study that aimed to test the L2MSS on 34 international students who learned Hungarian or English as a foreign language (EFL) during their studies in Hungary. The pilot questionnaire contained nine scales adapted from Taguchi, Magid, and Papi (2009). Besides the ideal L2 self and ought-to L2 self, the scales measured other influential learning and environmental impacts that exert their influence on the L2 learning experience, the third constituent of the model, with a view to better understanding what motivates international students to learn foreign languages. The findings of the pilot revealed that the adapted instrument worked in the Hungarian context and that international learners' motivational dispositions were mostly affected by learners' attitudes towards the foreign language community. Linear regression analysis revealed that the participants' motivated learning behavior could be predicted by their intrinsic and instrumental motivation. Significant differences were found between male and female respondents regarding their L2 ought-to selves and instrumental motivation. Besides explaining the attitudes that the learners have towards the foreign language community, the findings can be utilized to further enhance learners' motivation once the results are fed back to the community of professionals teaching similar students.
In today's globalized, multicultural and multilingual world, diverse social processes and macrocontextual factors are influencing people's motivation to learn a new language. According to OECD, the students' mobility to study abroad has increased more than two times during the past 2 decades, which plays a significant role in the world's future development. This paper aims to obtain a deeper understanding of international students' motivation for learning Hungarian in Budapest, Hungary. To achieve this aim, in-depth interviews were conducted with 17 international students who were awarded the Stipendium Hungaricum scholarship and have achieved between A1 and B1 level in Hungarian as a foreign language. The interview guide was adapted from Dörney's L2 Motivational Self System and Taguchi, Magid, and Papi scales. The collected data was analyzed through thematic analysis. The findings revealed that international students have integrative and instrumental motivation for learning Hungarian. However, their integrative motivation purposes are more common than their instrumental motivation.
Since acquiring writing skills in the English language is a multiplex task as it includes several complex cognitive activities (Tillema, 2012), it is a challenging skill to master for English as a foreign language (EFL) students. The acquisition of this skill is also affected by motivation, which has a great impact on the success or failure of learning the target language (Dörnyei & Ushioda, 2011), and significantly influences the learner's academic and professional performance (Csizér & Dörnyei, 2005). Lack of research focusing on investigating the motivating effect of different aspects of English writing in the Myanmar context provided inspiration to conduct the present pilot study, which focused on mapping the motivational profile of 54 EFL pre-service teachers in English writing in Myanmar. The questionnaire developed by the authors was piloted in September 2020. Results indicate that out of the 12 dimensions measured, pre-service teachers' ideal selves and instrumental motivation seem to be the most motivating aspects of English writing, and there is a strong correlation between these two scales suggesting that the participants' ideal L2 self has a pragmatic focus. Moreover, regression analysis shows that pre-service teachers' intrinsic motivation, and their ideal selves contribute most to their motivated learning behavior.