Since lithium salts were demonstrated to be very effective for the potential control of Varroa destructor, a highly detrimental parasite of honey bee (Apis mellifera), no studies have been reported on their comparison with any commonly used varroicides in commercial bee colonies. In this study we compared the effectiveness of lithium chloride to that of oxalic acid, a widely used miticide. The results of the present study confirm that lithium has superior efficacy to oxalic acid sublimation both as a main or a supplementary pre-wintering treatment at moderate infestation levels, restricted to certain pre-wintering conditions. Considering its easy implementation in apicultural practice and its twofold mode of action, trickling would be the preferred way of administration after the use of lithium salts as varroicides is authorised.
Significant differences in nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) were detected previously among potato cultivars. Exploration of the genetic background may facilitate the breeding of cultivars with highly effective nitrogen use.
Expression of NUE genes was analyzed at three different N-supply levels in five potato genotypes. Correlations of NUE gene expressions and agronomical parameters with such indices as the nitrogen uptake efficiency, nitrogen utilization efficiency, NUE, and harvest indices were analyzed.
The correlations between expression level of the nitrate–reductase, nitrite–reductase, ammonium transporter, and asparagine synthase genes and different agronomically important parameters were detected.
Our results contribute to more rational, genotype-dependent nitrogen use in potato production and have relevance in breeding of new cultivars with better nitrogen utilization, as well as in production of seed potato.