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In the past two decades, the number of archaeological explorations significantly increased in the densely built-up 11th district of Budapest, the area called Lágymányos. The recent excavations not once of large extent reveal a much more detailed picture of the Roman city structure and topography of the area that belongs to the vicinity of Aquincum, south of the Gellérthegy.

Considering the information obtained from previous smaller scale excavations (i.e. Kende Str. 8–10, Gellért Square) and the more recent excavations of a larger extent (Skála Department Store, Bercsényi Rd.) we may come to the conclusion that the area south of Gellérthegy called Lagymányos today was occupied by an indigenous Celtic vicus of the early imperial period. The composition of the findings of the different sites was almost identical. There was a strong indigenous (Celtic) component along with products of “provincial” ceramic production of the 1st and the 2nd century AD. The amount of imported ware found was insignificant in all sites. Excavated building structures (pit-houses, storage pits, ceramic kilns, industrial workshops) show the characteristics of a village-like settlement. According to Samian ware finds the settlement evolved in the Claudian era, flourished under the Flavians, slowly depopulated in the 2nd century, and was abandoned by its last inhabitants in the Severan era at the latest. Part of its population likely moved to this area from the native settlement of Tabán ceased under Tiberius.

The slow dissolution of the settlement refers to its inhabitants leaving the area because of economical reasons. The municipium of Aquincum starting to flourish in the mid 2nd century offering a better living for the inhabitants. The antique name of the vicus is not known. In terms of topography, the vicus of Lágymányos evolved in a favourable position. The southern slopes of Gellérthegy were a safe place to settle at, besides there were excellent quality clay sources along the Danube. A wide valley leads in the direction of today’s Budaörs through which trade and transportation could easily be carried out.

In the last one and a half decades several significant indigenous vici were excavated in the area of Budapest (BudaörsKamaraerdei-dűlő, Biatorbágy-Kukorica-dűlő, Páty-Malom-dűlő). The distance of these vici from one another is approximately equally about 6 kms. A group of sites (Kelenhegyi Rd. 27, Mányoki Str. 16, and the southern slopes of Gellérthegy) are linked to cemeteries instead of settlements. The majority of names on the epitaphs and the clothing and jewelry depicted on the steles dating back to the period between the last third of the 1st and the beginning of the 2nd century refer to the native Celtic population (one exception being Valerius Crescens who probably passed away as a veteranus). The vessels unearthed at Mányoki u. 16. referring to a cremation burial can also easily be fitted into the series of cemeteries of the early imperial age. Accordingly, a cemetery that belonged to the above vicus lied on the southern, south-western slopes of the Gellérthegy.

In conclusion, it is ascertainable, that after cross-checking data from the sporadic, mosaic-like excavation sites of Lágymányos, we localized an unknown (or interpreted otherwise previously) early Roman (1st–2nd century AD) indigenous vicus south of the Gellérthegy. The approximate extent of the vicus’ cemetery and several burials and steles are also known implying this being a complex settlement, not a potter’s workshop or a temporary settlement as it was previously believed.

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Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Péter Bor
József Csanádi
Gábor Veréb
Sándor Beszédes
Zita Šereš
Zsuzsanna László
Cecilia Hodúr
, and
Szabolcs Kertész

To meet the requirements defined by environmental protection regulations effective wastewater treatment is required to process effluents before discharging them into sewers or living waters. While membrane separation offers a quite advantageous method to reduce the organic load of wastewaters, membrane fouling is still limiting its application in wastewater treatment.

In this study, the possibility of membrane fouling reduction by increased shear rates on the surface of the membrane was investigated. 7 and 10 kDa MWCO ultrafiltration and 240 Da nanofiltration membranes were studied, with the use of a laboratory mode Vibratory Shear Enhanced Processing. This work mostly focused on studying the effects of module vibration and recirculation feed flow rate on permeate flux, specific energy demand and membrane rejections. Using the same operation parameters, vibration and non-vibration mode experiments were carried out with high and low recirculation flow rate to have a deeper understanding of the shear rate effects. It can be concluded that higher shear rate had a positive effect on the process: increased shear rate resulted in higher flux, higher overall rejection values, as well as a significantly decreased specific energy demand. By calculating and comparing the shear rates in experiments with different operating parameters, both vibration and nonvibration mode, both low and high recirculation flow rate, we have reached the conclusion that vibration causes a significantly higher shear rate increase than setting the recirculation flow rate high.

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