Cathepsin D (EC 126.96.36.199) is a lysosomal endopeptidase physiologically present at very low concentration in different tissues. The aim of the study was to estimate the physiological activity and distribution of cathepsin D in the liver. Four groups of ten-week-old male Wistar rats were raised without xenobiotics and sacrificed on day 4, 42, 47 and 84 of the experiment, and their livers were taken for immunohistochemical and biochemical investigation. Immunostaining for cathepsin D was evaluated by light microscope. Activity of the free and bound fractions of hepatic cathepsin D was measured spectrophotometrically. Immunohistochemical staining for cathepsin D was positive in Browicz-Kupffer cells in some but not in all rat liver specimens of each experimental group. The staining pattern was cytoplasmic and granular. Occasionally the positive stained endothelial cells were also found. No activity of cathepsin D in hepatocytes was detected. The positive immunostaining was found in livers with high enzyme activity in the biochemical investigation. No significant differences in activity of the free and bound fractions of cathepsin D among the different age groups were noted. However, the higher, age-dependent activity (p≯0.05) of the free fraction was observed in the youngest and the two-middle groups of rats that were sacrificed on day 42 and 47 than in the oldest one. The bound fraction did not reveal such changes. It could be concluded that there were no differences in the activity of hepatic free and bound fractions of cathepsin D in male Wistar rats of various reproductive age. The rat Browicz-Kupffer cells revealed the highest activity of cathepsin D.
Cathepsins are lysosomal enzymes that are used as sensitive markers in various toxicological investigations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the influence of cimetidine and famotidine on the cerebral cortex, particularly on the activity of cortical cathepsin B, D and L in the frontal lobe of rat brain. The drugs were administered intraperitoneally, twice a day, for six weeks to male Wistar rats in two doses. The initial dose was 2.85 mg/kg for cimetidine and 0.285 mg/kg for famotidine. The second dose was 10 times higher. Control animals were injected with 0.9% NaCl. Half of the animals from each of the drug-treated and control groups were sacrificed on the 42nd day of the experiment. The remaining animals were raised for another 6 weeks without any xenobiotics, and sacrificed on the 84th day. The frontal lobe of the right cerebral hemisphere was taken for biochemical investigation. The activities of free and bound fractions of cathepsin B, D and L were evaluated spectrophotometrically in cortical homogenates. The activity of bound fraction of cathepsin D and L decreased significantly in animals exposed to the higher dose of cimetidine and sacrificed on the 42nd day. Also significant elevation of the free fraction of cathepsin L was noted in the same group of rats. Cathepsin activities were normalized during the next six weeks. No behavioural changes were noted among the observed animals. Unlike cimetidine, famotidine did not change profiles of the cerebral cathepsins.
Many phytochemical investigations have been focused recently on the antioxidant activity of herbal extracts which can be used in phytotherapy. The previous study revealed antioxidative properties of Mutellina purpurea extract, but the constituents responsible for this action were not described yet. The aim of this study was activityguided separation and identification of antioxidant compounds from M. purpurea herb. Thin-layer chromatography-2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (TLC-DPPH•) assay was used to detect compounds of interest; liquid chromatography-diode array detection-mass spectrometry (LC-DAD-MS) analysis allowed to identify antioxidants. The active fractions analyzed with LC-DAD-MS contained as a main compound chlorogenic acid accompanied with p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, three dicaffeoylquinic acids, and caffeoylferuloylquinic acid. The fast TLC-DPPH• assay with LC-DAD-MS identification enabled the accurate identification of antioxidants in M. purpurea herb, which was done for the first time.
Metabolic acidosis complicates methanol, ethylene glycol and other alcohol intoxications. It is caused firstly by acid metabolites and secondly by the lactate elevation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH; EC 188.8.131.52) inhibitors and substrates: 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP), cimetidine, EDTA, ethanol and methanol on lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; EC 184.108.40.206) activity. The activity of LDH was determined spectrophotometrically in in vitro human heart homogenates with the mentioned compounds at 0.01, 0.1, 1.0 mM concentrations of 4-MP, cimetidine, EDTA, and 12.5, 25.0, 50.0 mM of ethanol and methanol. The LDH activity was significantly inhibited by 0.1 mM (p<0.05) and 1.0 mM (p<0.01) 4-MP and 1.00 mM EDTA (p<0.05). Higher LDH activity vs. control was observed in the samples incubated with all studied ethanol and methanol concentrations but these differences were not statistically significant. Thus, 4-MP was found to be the most effective inhibitor of LDH of all compounds tested. Therefore, such effect of 4-MP seems to be an additional advantage in methanol and ethylene glycol intoxications.