Laetiporus sulphureus (chicken of the woods) is a wood decaying mushroom with positive medicinal and biological effects. The aim of this study was to determine its chemical composition including the main organic components (protein, fat, fibre, and ash contents, different protein fractions, the free amino acid level, soluble oligo- and polysaccharides, phenolics), the in vitro digestibility, the free radical scavenging activity, and twenty mineral elements.Our data demonstrate the characteristic in general valuable chemical composition of the mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus. Protein content in fruiting bodies is not too high (10.6% d.m.), but the biological value (in vitro digestibility, rate of protein fractions, free amino acid content, etc.) is good (including fat and energy levels). Occurrence of “bioactive” components (phenolics, soluble oligo- and polysaccharides) and the measured free radical scavenging activity are similar to these parameters in Pleurotus (oyster) species. Potassium and phosphorus contents are remarkable (28 940 mg kg−1 d.m. and 4890 mg kg−1 d.m., respectively); levels of some poisonous microelements (As, Cd, Cr) are very low or undetectable. Chicken of the woods (Laetiporus sulphureus) is not only a suitable species for human consumption, but can be a new cultivable mushroom of valuable bioactive substances.
This work deals with the leaf blade anatomical structures of the broad-leaved fescue taxa, natural populations of temperate forage grasses, collected from various habitats in Central Europe. The following anatomical features were examined and quantitatively characterised: the ribs of leaves, type of the mesophyll, number of the sclerenchyma ribs, quantity of sclerenchyma tissue, presence of the colourless cells, number of bulliform cells, stomatal complexes and presence of papilla number. It was concluded that the anatomical structures and the main leaf blade characteristics of broad-leaved fescues show several differences between the taxa of Schenodorus and Drymanthele subgenus. The populations of the Schenodorus subgenus present heterogeneous mesophyll, with radial parenchyma, and colourless cells. Strong correlations exist between the bulliform cells and the quantity of sclerenchyma and papillae. The populations of Drymanthele subgenus also present heterogeneous mesophyll, but this is not evident for every taxa and populations. The radial parenchyma and the colourless cells are not specific. There is a positive correlation between the bulliform cells and the quantity of sclerenchyma. The comparative leaf anatomical analysis, could contribute to the better understanding of taxonomic and anatomical diversity in this group.
Chronic kidney diseases (CKDs) are the most common forms of kidney disease all around the world. The incidence of CKD is rising, which is mainly driven by population aging as well as by a global rise in hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and metabolic risk factors, particularly obesity and type-2 diabetes. The high mortality, morbidity of CKD, and the health care costs of the renal replacement therapy have led investigators to seek recent and potentially modifiable risk factors such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and the most common cause of chronic liver disease. It incorporates a spectrum of liver diseases ranging from simple steatosis to steatohepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. On the basis of recent publications, the prevalence of CKD is significantly increased among patients with NAFLD, and the prevalence of NAFLD is also higher in CKD patients than in patients without NAFLD. These findings suggest that patients with NAFLD should be screened for CKD and patients with CKD and metabolic syndrome should be screened for NAFLD. Patients with NAFLD and CKD should be treated and followed up by a multidisciplinary team that involves specialists in hepatology, nephrology, diabetes, and cardiology.
A method is described for the determination of89Sr and90Sr in samples of plant and animal origin. The Rehak-Feddersen method was modified to measure90Sr. Modification was made in the sample preparation and in the toluene-HDEHP [di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid] extraction.
After the extraction of yttrium, strontium is separated with nitric acid and—calculating with a correction factor—89Sr can directly be determined. Namely,89Sr can be measured in an aqueous solution by a liquid scintillation technique with an efficiency of 30% while90Sr with 1.4% only. Quenching of the solution—depending on the composition—which may influence the measurement of90Y and89Sr was also examined. Detection limits and reproducibilities are given. Finally, evaluation of the experimental data is reported.
Authors:J Kovács, Zs Koroknai, I Futó, and I Kovács-Székely
The time-series ofδ18O values measured weekly in Lake Balaton gave a chance to estimate the period time. To do this, we used a recently worked-out psd estimation method, the Lomb-Scargle periodogram (Lomb 1976, Press et al. 1992), in which the type of distribution can be given exactly to the power values, so confidence interval can be calculated. The result, however, is only a characteristic mean value of the time-interval examined, so the changes of the period-time were examined by demodulation. The essence of the method is that the process (time-series) is let through a filter that is permeable at merely one frequency, all the other frequency components are filtered out, so the difference from the mean period time can be placed in time. We also examined to what extent the water samples coming from one bay of Lake Balaton are representative of the whole lake. Hierarchical clustering was carried out on the hydrobiological and hydrochemical parameters of water samples coming from ten sites of Lake Balaton to determine the similar sampling sites. After the clustering, part of the sampling sites fell into different groups in the examined 16 sampling times. So the groups were marked in all the 16 sampling times with a code that shows to which group that actual sampling site belongs. In this way, each sampling site was placed in a 16-dimension space. Thus, another clustering became possible, so the grouping related to the given time period could be determined. The result was checked by statistical calculations.
The aim of the study was to determine the characteristics of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county in North-Eastern Hungary and to elaborate an environmentally sound agricultural strategy. 50% of Szabolcs-Szatmár-Bereg county is arable land (303,950 ha). After the change of regime there was no significant decrease in the size of the arable land. Cultivation is still practised on soils of poorer quality. Under the changed production conditions, crop cultivation in its present form does not come up to the economic expectations. The sowing structure is not suited to the regional climate and soil conditions; 75% of the arable land is occupied by only 5 species of plant. A change in the cultivation profile (afforestation) can be expected on connected marginal areas where economic calculations indicate that economical cultivation is not possible. A typical feature of the region's cereal production is that it takes up significantly more arable land than is justified: in recent years the average ratio of cereals was 60–65%. In certain microregions the production of protein fodders is recommended for the economical production of better quality meat. There has been an increase in the area sown to triticale, peas, beans and cucumber for seed production. The production of flowers, vegetables, spices and herbs should be promoted; these plants require manual work, so they could play a significant role in solving employment problems. On more unfavourable areas, suitable for the cultivation of agricultural products, the production of low-input plants (e.g. rye, triticale, sorghum) suitable for extensive cultivation should be considered. In small regions with favourable ecological and infrastructural situations the area sown to crops with greater production value and greater labour requirements can be expected to increase.
There is still disagreement among scientists on the exact origin of common wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum), one of the most important crops in the world. The first step in the development of the hexaploid aestivum group (ABD) may have been hybridisation between T. urartu (A), as pollinator, and a species related to the Sitopsis section of the Aegilops genus (S) as cytoplasm donor, leading to the creation of the tetraploid species T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides (AB). The following step may have involved hybridisation between T. turgidum ssp. dicoccon (AB genome, cytoplasm donor), a descendant of T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides, and Ae. tauschii (D genome, pollinator), resulting in the hexaploid species T. aestivum ssp. spelta (ABD) or some other hulled type. This form may have given rise to naked types, including T. aestivum ssp. aestivum (ABD). The ancestors of the tetraploid T. timopheevii (AG) may have been the diploid T. urartu (A genome, pollinator) and Ae. speltoides (S genome, cytoplasm donor). Species in the timopheevii group developed later than those in the turgidum group, as confirmed by the fact that the G genome is practically identical to the S genome of Ae. speltoides, while the more ancient B genome has undergone divergent evolution. Hybridisation between T. timopheevii (AG, cytoplasm donor) and T. monococcum (A m, pollinator) may have resulted in the species T. zhukovskyi (AGA m). Research into the relationships between the various species is of assistance in compiling the taxonomy of wheat and in avoiding misunderstandings arising from the fact that some species are known by two or more synonymous names.
King oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) is a worldwide cultivated mushroom of appreciated nutritional and medicinal quality. Aims of these investigations were to give new comparative data for the better evaluation of P. eryngii. Results of our investigations can be summarized as follows:
P. eryngii has higher (crude protein, crude fat) or at least the same concentrations (chitin and total carbohydrate) of organic nutritive components than the common cultivated Pleurotus hybrid (‘HK-35’). Regarding the classical protein fractions: albumins are the highest content in both mushrooms, but the quantity and the proportion in P. eryngii is better than in ‘HK-35’ hybrid. Occurrence and proportion of protein fractions is more valuable in P. eryngii, while the NPN contents of both mushrooms are the same.
The investigated soluble oligo- and polysaccharides were present in high amounts in both mushrooms, but the free radical scavenging activity seems to be markedly higher in king oyster mushroom, making it more valuable. Mineral compositions of both species are similarly beneficial, but P. eryngii has basically higher P and lower K levels. More intensive cultivation and use of P. eryngii is clearly recommended.