In the past decade, novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) gained a significant role on the contemporary drug scene. Synthetic cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids are the most common NPSs both in Hungary and worldwide. This study aims to provide a literature review on the Hungarian characteristics related to the use of these NPSs.
Materials and methods
Available literature regarding synthetic cathinone and cannabinoid use in Hungary was overviewed and structured into (a) epidemiological studies, (b) studies on the subjective and somatic effects, and (c) studies on toxicity and adverse consequences. Published papers between 2007 and 2017 were identified using PubMed and MATARKA search engines.
One hundred twenty-six papers were identified and after exclusion, 54 papers remained for in-depth analysis. Most of the reviewed studies were providing epidemiological information regarding the NPSs of our interest. Hungarian prevalence rates were not higher than the European averages. Identified risks of these NPSs consisted of drug-induced psychosis, further severe psychiatric symptoms, and fatal overdose. Injecting of cathinones was also a commonly reported phenomenon, mostly among clients of needle-exchange programs.
Based on the reviewed body of research, necessary information is available to plan effective prevention and intervention programs and establishes specific therapeutic guidelines for the treatment of NPS users.
In the study we aim to model the information search behaviour of Hungarian consumers committed to sustainable consumption through the practice of food purchasing. To reach our goal we examined the logic of Grunert-Wills information search model.In our research the information search behaviour of “Trend followers” was investigated. To reach the mentioned group, data collection was carried out by the method of quota sampling, where quotas were defined according to characteristics of value system based lifestyle segments discovered in a 2011 national representative research by us. Through the analysis one-variable statistics and contingency table analysis were carried out.Our results prove the followings: (i) the logic of Grunert-Wills model is suitable for describing the information search behaviour of conscious consumers. (ii) Lifestyle has a highlighted effect on information search behaviour.
We used cellular automata models to investigate the effect of initial pattern geometry on competition. We measured the average proportion of sites with foreign neighbours to track interspecific segregation during pattern development. Our simulation results show that intraspecific aggregation can considerably slow down the extinction of the weaker competitor. A series of experiments was performed to estimate the expected time to extinction for the weaker species. The perimeter-to-area ratio of the initial configuration proved to be an adequate determinant of expected timeto- extinction. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the degree of aggregation is closely related to the local density dependence of the colonization functions.
Authors:L. Rácz, A. Bumbálová, M. Harangozó, J. Tölgyessy, and O. Tomeček
Cesium and selenium intake of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), with these elements previously added to the culture medium, has been examined from the viewpoint of health- and environmental protection. The process of measuring has been carried out by the radionuclide X-ray fluorescence technique. Treattments of the elementary substance with Se salt appears to influence the Se content of the mushrooms to a significant extent. Cs intake is of considerable importance, as this element is accumulated by mushrooms.
Authors:R. Zelkó, Á. Orbán, J. Nagy, G. Csóka, and I. Rácz
In the course of the formulation of coated dosage forms, the selection of the suitable composition of the coating system is
of great importance in respect of the final dosage form. Since the applied coating systems are multicomponent, the possible
interactions between the components determine the physico-chemical stability of the formulated dosage form, the drug release
process, as well as the formulation parameters. In the present study, the influence of the applied plasticizer, dibutyl sebacate
on the enthalpy relaxation of casted Eudragit L 30D films was determined as a function of the plasticizer concentration. The
enthalpy relaxation was recorded by DSC during the applied isothermal recovery process of Eudragit films. The obtained results
indicate that enthalpy relaxation can be measured by DSC at 20 mass/mass% dibutyl sebacate concentration, which refers to
the increased molecular mobility consequently to the effect of the interaction between the polymer and plasticizer.
Authors:Márk Váczi, A. Costa, L. Rácz, and J. Tihanyi
This study compared two training regimens in which knee extensor exercises were performed at different range of motion.
Sixteen males performed bouts of 90 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions over 6 consecutive days (B1-B6) at either small (n=8) or large (n=8) range of motion. Average of peak torque (Mp) of each of the 90 contraction trials were calculated, plasma creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were measured before, 24 h, 48 h and 6 d after B1. Muscle soreness was evaluated every day during the experiment.
At B3 Mp reduced more in group L than in group S. From B1 to B6 group S increased Mp, while in group L Mp did not return to the baseline level. In both groups CK activity elevated 24 h following B1. CK activity was significantly higher in group L 6d after B1. In group L muscle soreness was higher at 48 h, 72 h, 4 d and 5 d after B1.
High-intensity, consecutive eccentric knee extensor exercise training at large range of motion may induce greater development of muscle damage and force deficit, than training at small range of motion. Training at small range of motion may induce early adaptation in voluntary torque production.
Authors:Imre Juhász, I. Györe, Zs Csende, L. Rácz, and J. Tihanyi
The objective of this study was to determine whether creatine supplementation (CrS) could improve mechanical power output, and swimming performance in highly trained junior competitive fin swimmers. Sixteen male fin swimmers (age:15.9±1.6 years) were randomly and evenly assigned to either a creatine (CR, 4×5 g/day creatine monohydrate for 5 days) or placebo group (P, same dose of a dextrose-ascorbic acid placebo) in a double-blind research. Before and after CrS the average power output was determined by a Bosco-test and the swimming time was measured in two maximal 100 m fin swims. After five days of CrS the average power of one minute continuous rebound jumps increased by 20.2%. The lactate concentration was significantly less after 5 minutes restitution at the second measurement in both groups. The swimming time was significantly reduced in both first (pre: 50.69±1.41 s; post: 48.86±1.34 s) and second (pre: 50.39±1.38 s; post: 48.53±1.35 s) sessions of swimming in CR group, but remained almost unchanged in the P group.The results of this study indicate that five day Cr supplementation enhances the dynamic strength and may increase anaerobic metabolism in the lower extremity muscles, and improves performance in consecutive maximal swims in highly trained adolescent fin swimmers.
Authors:C. L. Frank, Szabina J. Czirok, Csilla Vincze, G. Rácz, Á. Szél, and B. Vígh
In earlier works we have found that in the mammalian pineal organ, a part of autonomic nerves - generally thought to mediate light information from the retina - form vasomotor endings on smooth muscle cells of vessels. We supposed that they serve the vascular support for circadian and circannual periodic changes in the metabolic activity of the pineal tissue. In the present work, we investigated whether peripheral nerves present in the photoreceptive pineal organs of submammalians form similar terminals on microvessels. In the cyclostome, fish, amphibian, reptile and bird species investigated, autonomic nerves accompany vessels entering the arachnoidal capsule and interfollicular meningeal septa of the pineal organ. The autonomic nerves do not enter the pineal tissue proper but remain in the perivasal meningeal septa isolated by basal lamina. They are composed of unmyelinated and myelinated fibers and form terminals around arterioles, veins and capillaries. The terminals contain synaptic and granular vesicles. Comparing various vertebrates, more perivasal terminals were found in reptiles and birds than in the cyclostome, fish and amphibian pineal organs. Earlier, autonomic nerves of the pineal organs were predominantly investigated in connection with the innervation of pineal tissue. The perivasal terminals found in various submammalians show that a part of the pineal autonomic fibers are vasomotoric in nature, but the vasosensor function of some fibers cannot be excluded. We suppose that the vasomotor regulation of the pineal microvessels in the photosensory submamalian pineal - like in mammals - may serve the vascular support for circadian and circannual periodic changes in the metabolic activity of the pineal tissue. The higher number of perivasal terminals in reptiles and birds may correspond to the higher metabolic activity of the tissues in more differentiated species.
Authors:C. Szőke, T. Árendás, F. Rácz, J. Pintér, E. Nagy, and C. Marton
Six single-cross hybrids and their parental lines were inoculated with the FG36
isolate in 2005 and 2006. In both years the degree of infection increased after artificial inoculation for both the hybrids and the inbred lines compared with the level of natural infection. The more severe stalk infection recorded in 2005 than in 2006 could be attributed to the weather conditions during flowering and harvesting.The 18 genotypes examined exhibited different levels of resistance to fusarium stalk rot. It could be concluded from the results that the resistance level of the female parent was decisive in the inheritance of the response to fusarium stalk rot (female component-hybrid r = 0.88, male component-hybrid r = 0.39).Some genotypes may be severely affected in epidemic years, while exhibiting a lower rate of infection in years with lower pathogen pressure. This suggests that successful breeding for resistance can only be carried out efficiently by means of artificial inoculation.
Authors:Z. Hegyi, T. Spitkó, C. Szőke, F. Rácz, T. Berzy, J. Pintér, and L. Marton
The adaptability of twelve single cross maize hybrids was investigated at five different locations in Hungary over a three-year period. The characters examined were individual plant production (total mass of the ears on a single plant), thousand kernel mass, number of kernel rows, ear length, number of kernels per row, shelling % and the assimilating leaf area above the main ear.Among these yield components, the individual plant production, the ear length, the number of kernels per row and the grain-cob ratio (shelling %) were influenced to the greatest extent by the year, followed by the variety and the location. The greatest average yield was achieved by the tested hybrids at all five locations in 1997 (263 g/plant). The average yields in 1998 and 1999 were significantly lower (221 and 203 g/plant, respectively). The outstanding yields achieved in 1997 could be attributed to the favourable ecological conditions, which led to the development of secondary ears in Keszthely and Sopronhorpács. At the other three locations there was only one ear per plant, but these ears were longer than in the following years. The greatest year effect was recorded in Sopronhorpács, where the individual plant production amounted to 305 g/plant in 1997 and 238 g/plant in the worst year, 1999. In Gyöngyös conditions were very dry in all three years, so the year effect was least pronounced at this location (grand mean of 195 g/plant in 1997 and 201 g/plant in 1999). Stability analysis was carried out using the coefficient of variance for individual plant production. Hybrids Mv 3, Mv 5, Mv 9 and Mv 12 were found to have the best adaptability. The shelling % was not significantly influenced by the location; the grain-cob ratio is relatively stable for maize hybrids. A correlation was found between the individual plant production and the leaf area above the main ear (R
=0.66). Hybrids with the largest leaf area above the main ear also had the greatest ear mass.