Authors:M. Marković, P. Pepó, M. Sárvári, V. Kovačević, J. Šoštarić and M. Josipović
In the decade from 2000 to 2009, the yield of maize grain in Croatia varied from 4.2 t ha−1 (2003) to 8.0 t ha−1 (2008). The yield variation was mainly caused by weather conditions unfavourable for maize production, meaning lack of precipitation, unevenly distributed during the vegetation season, and mean air temperatures above the long-term mean. Irrigation has become a justified and essential agrotechnical measure that minimizes the damage caused by water deficit during critical plant growth stages and ensures high yields with good quality. In this paper two vegetation seasons (2006 and 2007) with quite different weather conditions for maize production were analysed in order to examine the importance of irrigation in terms of yield increase, irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE), irrigation efficiency (IE) and irrigation water use index (IWUI) in years favourable (2006) or too dry (2007) for maize production. The yield surpluses achieved with irrigation ranged from 8.54 t ha−1 to 9.62 t ha−1 in the average crop year (2006) and from 8.43 t ha−1 to 10.7 t ha−1 in the dry year (2007), depending on the irrigation method. In the dry year the values of IWUE where higher than in the average year (6.16 and 13.75 kg ha−1/mm, respectively, averaged over the hybrids).
Authors:Z. Lipej, J. Segalés, I. Toplak, B. Šoštarić, Besi Roić, M. Lojkić, P. Hostnik, J. Grom, Darja Barlič-Maganja, Kamelija Žarković and D. Oraić
The objective of this study was to characterise porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from pigs with naturally occurring postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in Croatia, and to determine the epizootiological, clinical and pathomorphological features of the disease. During a systematic health monitoring programme conducted in the period from January 2002 to June 2003, PMWS was suspected on eight different pig-producing farms in Croatia. The diagnosis of PMWS met all three key criteria: the presence of compatible clinical signs, the presence of the characteristic microscopic lymphoid lesions, and the detection of PCV2 within the lesions by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and by in situ hybridisation (ISH). Moreover, PCV2 DNA from swine tissues was extracted and sequenced. The phylogenetic analysis of 4 Croatian PCV2 strains showed close relationship to PCV2 strains isolated in Slovenia, France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, China and Hungary. PCV2 was also demonstrated by electron microscopy in the lymph node of an affected animal. This is the first demonstration of PMWS in Croatia based on all scientifically accepted diagnostic criteria.