Sodium titanium germanate with a semicrystalline framework (STG) of the formula Na3H(TiO)3(GeO)(GeO4)3·7H2O was synthesized under mild hydrothermal conditions and its proton form, H4(TiO)3(GeO)(GeO4)3·8H2O (STG-H), was prepared by acid treatment of the sodium compound. The STG was characterized by elemental analysis, TGA, FT-IR,
and X-ray powder diffraction. A comparative ion exchange examination of the STG-H towards alkali and alkaline earth metals
in a broad pH and concentration range was carried out. It was found that the STG is a moderately weak cation exchanger, possessing
high ion exchange capacity (up to 4.0 meq/g) and showing preference for heavy alkali and alkaline earth metals. The STG selectivity
towards Cs+ and Sr2+ ions in the presence of competitive metal ions and certain organic compounds was also studied. The data obtained suggest
that the sodium titanium germanate is a more selective exchanger for Sr2+ ion than its titanium silicate analogue, K3H(TiO)4(SiO4)3·4H2O.
Here we present a new proof of Blatter's result: a normed space is complete if every bounded closed convex subset has an element of minimum norm. We also present geometrical conditions for the existence of minimum-norm elements in bounded closed convex sets. Also, we characterize reflexivity in the class of Banach spaces by means of contraction functions. Furthermore, we study what happens if we remove the completeness hypothesis.
Authors:E. Berriochoa, A. Cachafeiro, and J. García-Amor
We characterize the supports of the measures having quadrature formulae with similar exactness as Gauss’ theorem. Indeed we
obtain the supports of the measures from which an m-point quadrature formula can be obtained such that it exactly integrates functions in the space ℙm−k,m−k[
The thermal decompositions of divalent cobalt, cadmium, nickel and copper salicylates and intermediates formed during the decomposition processes were investigated by means of thermogravimetry. Two intermediates were identified in each case, except for copper(II) salicylate.
Authors:J. A. García, Rosa Rodriguez-Sánchez, and J. Fdez-Valdivia
Here we show a longitudinal analysis of the overall prestige of first quartile journals during the period between 1999 and 2009, on the subject areas of Scopus. This longitudinal study allows us to analyse developmental trends over times in different subject areas with distinct citation and publication patterns. To this aim, we first introduce an axiomatic index of the overall prestige of journals with ranking score above a given threshold. Here we demonstrate that, between 1999 and 2009, there was high and increasing overall prestige of first quartile journals in only four areas of Scopus. Also, there was high and decreasing overall prestige of first quartile journals in five areas. Two subject areas showed high and oscillating overall prestige of first quartile journals. And there was low and increasing overall prestige in four areas, since the 1999.
Authors:J. A. García, Rosa Rodriguez-Sánchez, and J. Fdez-Valdivia
Here we show a comparison of top economics departments in the US and EU based on a summary measure of the multidimensional prestige of influential papers in 2010. The multidimensional prestige takes into account that several indicators should be used for a distinct analysis of structural changes at the score distribution of paper prestige. We argue that the prestige of influential articles should not only consider one indicator as a single dimension, but in addition take into account further dimensions, since several different indicators have been developed to evaluate the impact of academic papers. After having identified the multidimensionally influential articles from an economics department, their prestige scores can be aggregated to produce a summary measure of the multidimensional prestige of research output of this department, which satisfies numerous properties.
Authors:R. Artiaga, A. Garcia, L. Garcia, A. Varela, J. Mier, S. Naya, and M. Grana
The nickel-titanium alloys are usually known as Shape Memory alloys because of their ability to return to some previously
defined shape or size when subjected to the appropriate thermal procedure. Mechanical properties of a nickel titanium wire
were investigated by DMTA using cylindrical tension mode. The Young"s modulus, the maximum strain and residual deformation
have been calculated. Recovery of previously deformed samples was observed in constant stress temperature ramp tests. Relaxation
stress behaviour at temperatures above the austenitic transformation has been studied. The strain and frequency ranges of
linear response have been determined by dynamic experiments. Strain amplitude of 0.1% and frequency of 1 Hz have been chosen
for the temperature ramp dynamic experiments. A big change between 65 and 95C is observed in the storage modulus. The values
of E' at temperatures below and above the transition are essentially constant. Finally, the effects of the frequency at different
temperatures have been examined.
Authors:A. García-Villaraco Velasco, A. Probanza, F. Gutierrez Mañero, B. Ramos, and J. Lucas García
Activity and functional diversity of rhizosphere bacterial communities and fungal composition were studied in order to assess the effects of different genotypes (N8035, N224 and N8637) of
on these communities growing in different soils. Genotype effect and soil effect were studied independently. Also, the interactions between both factors (genotypes and soils) were considered. The activity was determined by thymidine and leucine incorporation analysis, and Biolog ECO plates were used to study bacterial functional diversity. Additionally, fungi groups (genera and/or species) were studied in the different rhizospheres. Statistical differences on thymidine incorporation between plant genotypes were only found in two of the soils. In addition, functional diversity (measured by Shanonn-Weaver index), showed statistical differences only in soil 1 for line N8035 (line B)
. the other lines. Redundancy analysis (RDA) performed with Biolog data indicated and important effect of soil type, but also an effect of genotype since line N8035 (line B) was separated from the other lines within each soil in the RDA ordination, in spite of genotypic differences between them were minimum. Furthermore, carboxylic acids and amino acids were found to be the Biolog plate substrates with more influence in samples ordination in the Redundancy Analysis (RDA). However, fungi seem to be less labile to plant selection than bacteria probably due to a lower turn-over time of fungi than bacteria coupled with the short phenology of
. In this paper, plant-soil-micro-organism relationships in the rhizosphere were studied, and the complex interactions between them were highlighted. More studies are necessary to go deep in these interactions and to be able to asses the impact of genetically modified plants.