Ion-exchange and solvent extraction procedures that can enable the use of NAA for the determination of trace elements from gallium matrix, using pre-irradiation separations are discussed. Matrix separation coefficients of the order of 103–106 are obtained.
Authors:R. Verma, J. Arunachalam, and S. Gangadharan
A radiochemical neutron activation analysis procedure for the determination of Ta, W, Ir, Pt, Au, Cu, Cr, Co and Zn in lithium niobate has been developed. The method involves a one-step removal of radioactive nuclides of Nb, Ta and W representing the dominating radioactivity of the irradiated sample. After irradiation, the sample is fused with inactive carriers and Na2O2 in a nickel crucible. The fused cake is dissolved in HCl–H2O2 and Nb, Ta and W are homogeneously precipitated. The impurities are separated by combinations of precipitation and ion-exchange separations for precise -ray measurements with an overall chemical yield of 70% to 90%. The results are discussed.
Authors:J. Arunachalam, Anna John, and S. Gangadharan
A neutron activation analysis procedure has been developed for the indirect determination of phosphorus as orthophosphate at ppb levels, via the formation of antimonyl phosphomolybdic acid. The complex is adsorbed on Sephadex G-25 resin and the antimony is estimated through NAA, allowing the determination of phosphorus. The procedure provides an easy method to adopt for the routine determination of phosphorus at 10 ng ml–1 levels with good precision, in water samples.
Authors:M. Krishna, J. Arunachalam, M. Murali, Surendra Kumar, and V. Manchanda
The efficiency of immobilized moss as a bio-sorbent for the removal of 137Cs and 90Sr radionuclides from actual low-level radioactive waste (LLW) solutions was investigated. Preliminary batch experiments with
the moss (Funaria hygrometrica) for the sorption of Cs and Sr have shown a pH dependent binding trend from pH 1–13, with maximum binding between pH 5–10.
Time dependence of the batch studies showed that a contact time of 30 minutes was sufficient to reach equilibrium. Column
experiments for the sorption of Cs and Sr by moss after immobilizing in polymer silica matrix demonstrated that the sorbent
is capable of removing considerable amounts of Cs and Sr from actual LLW solutions under constant flow conditions. The adsorption
capacity was estimated to be 8.5 mg/g for Cs and 15 mg/g for Sr. These sorbed metal ions from the column could be leached
out using 0.20M nitric acid. The regenerated sorbent exhibited relatively the same initial binding capacity of both Cs and
Sr even after 3 cycles of reuse.
Authors:D. Chowdhury, J. Arunachalam, Rakesh Verma, Sujit Pal, and S. Gangadharan
40 MeV -particles have been used to determine oxygen impurity at ppm levels in silicon, copper, and stainless steel, through the radiochemical separation of18F from the matrix. The separation of18F has been carried out by two techniques, viz.(1) distillation of H2SiF6 and (2) precipitation of KBF4 and some modification has been applied in the separation, depending on the nature of interferences from the matrix. Instrumental approach was also carried out to determine the oxygen impurity at 100 ppm in Si matrix because this approach is not possible in Cu and stainless steel samples due to matrix activity.