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B. Hofmann-Wellenhof, K. Legat, M. Wieser: Navigation. Principles of Positioning and Guidance. Springer-Verlag, Wien, New York, 2003, 427 pages, 99 figs; W. Schröder ed.: Zur Entstehung der solar-terrestrischen Physik/Some aspects of the earlier history of solar-terrestrial physics. Beitrage zur Geschichte der Geophysik und kosmischen Physik, Vol. 5, No. 3., Science Edition, 2004, pp. 150

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Genebanks are storage facilities designed to maintain the plant genetic resources of crop varieties (and their wild relatives) and to ensure that they are made available and distributed for use by plant breeders, researchers and farmers. The Martonvásár Cereal Genebank (MV-CGB) collection evolved from the working collections of local breeders and consists predominantly of local and regional materials. Established in 1992 by the Agricultural Research Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (Bedő, 2009), MVCGB with its over 10,000 accessions of the major species (Triticum, Aegilops, Agropyron, Elymus, Thinopyrum, Pseudoroegneria, Secale, Hordeum, Avena, Zea mays), became one of the approx. 80 cereal germplasm collections that exist globally. In Martonvásár breeding is underway on a number of cereal species, and large numbers of genotypes are tested each year in the field and under laboratory conditions. The increasing size of the research programmes assisted by a modern genebank background involve an enormous increase in the quantity of data that must be handled during research activities such as traditional breeding, pre-breeding and organic breeding. A computerized system is of primary importance to synchronize breeding and genebank activities, to monitor the quality and quantity of seed accessions in cold storage, to assist the registration of samples, and to facilitate characterization, regeneration and germplasm distribution.

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The water-soluble carbohydrates contributing to the response of wheat seedlings to cadmium stress in nutrient solution were studied with or without Ti(IV)-ascorbate supply. The total water-soluble carbohydrate, glucose, fructose, sucrose, glucan and fructan contents, and the cadmium and titanium contents were measured in wheat seedlings exposed to 10-4 M Cd or 10-5M Cd with either Ti(IV)-ascorbate or Na-ascorbate in the medium. Glucose, fructose and fructan showed the greatest response to Cd, ascorbate and titanium treatments. The sugar content in plants exposed to Cd increased with the metal concentration. Titanium tended to decrease the cadmium-induced sugar accumulation. Ti(IV)-ascorbate and Na-ascorbate were also applied without Cd to study the effect of these chemicals. In general, Na-ascorbate induced a higher accumulation of sugar components than Ti(IV)-ascorbate. Titanium addition in Cd-containing solution caused a significant decrease in the cadmium accumulation in the leaves. An increase in titanium content was observed only in the roots, higher values being measured in plants grown in solution containing 10-4 M Cd.

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The yield potential of wheat depends not only on genetic × environmental interactions, but also on various agronomic factors such as sowing date or the seed rate used for sowing. The main aim of this work was to determine possible correlations between the effects of different sowing dates and plant densities on the yield components of a collection of 48 wheat genotypes. Two-way analysis of variance on the data revealed that both sowing date and plant density, as main components, only had a minor effect on the yield component patterns. Correlation analysis, however, indicated that the sowing date had a greater effect on the yield components, while plant density was in closer correlation with the heading time (r = 0.90). The patterns determined for individual yield components at two different sowing dates and plant densities showed significant differences for spike length, spike fertility, grain number in the main spike, number of productive tillers, grain number on side tillers, mean grain number and grain weight. Genotypes that carry the winter (recessive) alleles of genes regulating vernalisation processes (VRN-A1, VRN-B1, VRN-D1) and the sensitive (recessive) alleles of the two genes responsible for photoperiod sensitivity (PPD-B1, PPD-D1) may have better tillering and consequently higher grain yield, though this may depend greatly on the year.

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Studies on plant development phases and yield component patterns of wheat are essential for a better understanding of adaptation in wheat. Our main aim was to carry out detailed phenological analyses of 18 wheat genotypes in three sowing times for determining the effect of sowing date on individual phenophases, and yield components. Sowing date had the single greatest effect on the start of intensive stem elongation. The longer vegetation period had a favourable effect on main spike length and on the spikelet number per spike, but had no influence on thousand-kernel weight and grain number per spike. The time between the first node appearance and start of intensive stem elongation had a significant effect on the number of reproductive tillers. A close association (R2 = 0.191) was observed during the second phase of intensive stem elongation between the boot stage-to-heading interval and the number of spikelets per spike. Two-way analysis of variance on the yield components showed that the sowing date, as a main factor, had a weaker effect on the phenophases than on morphological and developmental parameters. The insensitive allele of the Ppd-D1 gene shortened the time required for first node appearance and heading both in autumn and spring sowing.

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The effect of irrigation water on the yield and on individual yield components was examined for 19 durum wheat varieties by continually recording weather data and carrying out measurements on the moisture content, temperature, electrical conductivity and tension of the soil. Dry (rain-fed) and irrigated treatments were included in the experiment, which was carried out in the framework of the EU FP7-244374 DROPS project.During the rainless spring of 2011 the soil moisture content of the non-irrigated area dropped to 21–22 vol% and the effect of drought stress was still felt at harvest. The quantity of irrigation water applied during the growing season ensured normal conditions for generative development and a significant difference could be detected between the yield components in the two treatments. The thousand-kernel weight of the varieties was identical in the dry and irrigated plots, but in response to irrigation there was an increase in the number of grains per ear and the grain weight, and an improvement in fertilisation, resulting in higher yields.

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In the past decades many papers were published on the nutritional effect and bioactive components of edible mushrooms. The fungi are able to accumulate secondary metabolites, for example, phenolic compounds, polyketides, terpenes and steroids. In case of mushrooms the button mushrooms are preferred in the Eastern-European region. Therefore white and cream type button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and different A. subrufescens (syn. A. blazei) cultivars were cropped, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity (FRAP) were measured in two years of experiments. To develop the description method of mushroom products, software-supported profile analysis was applied to characterize them. The aim of the research was to compare the sensory profiles of the samples, and to find those characteristics, they actually differ in.

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In the present study, heat treatment was carried out in five different phenological phases, from the first node detectable (DEV31) growth stage to 20 days after flowering, on four wheat genotypes with very different adaptation strategies. They were grown in a controlled environment in a phytotron chamber and exposed to a night temperature of 20°C and a day temperature of either 30°C, at DEV31, or 35°C at all the later developmental phases, for an interval of 14 days. Plant height, leaf number, number of tillers, grain number and grain weight per main and side spikes, TKW per main and side spikes, length of the main and side spikes, and spikelet number per main and side spikes were recorded. High temperature enhanced the stem growth intensity, plant height and tiller number. In contrast, the length of side spikes, spikelet no./side spike, grain no./main and side spike, grain weight/main and side spike and TKW/main and side spike were significantly decreased. The stress response depended strongly on the developmental phase in which the heat stress was applied. Fleischmann 481 and Soissons showed definitely contrasting tendencies both in grain number and grain weight. In the case of the Plainsman V and Mv Magma pair, the higher heat stress tolerance of Magma compared to Plainsman V was evident also from the grain number and weight of the main spike at each developmental phase.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: J. Bányai, P. Szűcs, I. Karsai, K. Mészáros, Cs. Kuti, L. Láng and Z. Bedő

A total of 96 winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars registered in Hungary were analysed using 15 wheat microsatellite markers located on different chromosome arms. Analyses revealed 91 SSR alleles with sizes ranging from 123–239 base pairs. The total number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 (Gwm664 and Gwm415) to 11 (Gwm219) with an average number of 6.1. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values ranged from 0.06 to 0.85 with an average number of 0.60 for all markers. Several markers included allele sizes characteristic of a single or a small number of cultivars. At most 9 SSR markers were required to distinguish the 96 cultivars, so the simple sequence repeats could serve as a relatively cheap, rapid method for identifying winter wheat cultivars.

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