The long-term protection of plant species is impossible without a comprehensive and thorough knowledge of their biology. This paper deals with some of the important aspects of the biology of two strictly protected species,
The changes of the leaf area of plants were measured with a non-destructive method and the growth pattern was investigated during the vegetation period. It was also studied how the plant size of individuals changed from year to year, and what kind of connection there was between the plant condition and the flowering. Large size plants of both species were characterised by intensive growth rates in autumn and spring, their growth stopped in winter. Often they lost some of their leaf areas because of damage from insects (mainly in the case of
, and frost (almost exclusively in the case of
). In some years the medium and small size plants were characterised by similar growth pattern to those of large size ones, but more often their growth did not stop in winter, though their growth was not so fast. The medium and small size
individuals showed an intense autumn growth only in one vegetation period, which characterised both large size individuals of
and all individuals of
The constant annual rate of growth, which may have been slowed meaning that the leaf number did not grow, but it did not stop either, was detected in hardly more than 10% of individuals with both species. In the case of
the critical size for flowering seemed to be 50 cm
, which was usually reached in the four-leaf stage of the rosettes. The same value was 100 cm
in the case of
and it needed at least a six-leaf basal rosette. The leaf number and the leaf area of reproductive plants had been larger for already two years before flowering took place, than those of the plants that remained vegetative.
The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of positive expiratory pressure (PEP) and Flutter on expectoration in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Data was gathered through 260 treatments with 10 patients (5 female; 19.2 years; BMI: 18.0). Two methods were used alternately, first the patients started with Flutter and proceeded with PEP, and the next occasion they exercised in the reverse order, starting with PEP then continuing with Flutter. During each phase, 5 sets of 10 exhalations were performed. Sputum weight was measured after the use of the first device, and at the end of the treatment. During sessions starting with Flutter 4.0 ± 4.0 g sputum was expectorated, continuing with PEP, an additional 5.2 ± 5.0 g was produced, altogether 9.2 ± 8.2 g. At sessions starting with PEP 7.4 ± 3.7 g was expectorated, continuing with Flutter an additional 0.8 ± 1.4 g, that is 8.2 ± 4.1 g. Comparing the two devices by themselves, PEP proved to be significantly more efficient then Flutter. Comparing the two treatment types it is statistically not proven, which one is preferable using both devices. Conclusively, PEP is significantly more efficient than the Flutter in sputum expectoration among CF patients. The Flutter is a useful supplementary device.
Authors:J. Janan, L. Bárdos, Mária Karsai, Gabriella Ágota, Péter Rudas, J. Kozák and L. Bódi
The susceptibility of geese of different genotypes and sexes to force-feeding, some plasma biochemical parameters (thyroid hormones, cholesterol, retinoids, total protein and albumin) of force-fed geese, and the relationship between force-feeding, fat storage and the above-mentioned parameters were studied. Sixty (30 male and 30 female) geese of three genotypes (Hungarian, Landes and their crossbred called Babat Hybrid) were divided in two groups at 12 weeks of age. Geese in one group (5 males and 5 females from each genotype) received mixed feedingad libitum. Birds in the other group were force-fed with maize. After 3 weeks all birds were bled, blood samples were taken, and the above-mentioned plasma parameters were determined. Thyroxine (T4) levels were significantly lower in force-fed (11.6 ± 3.5 ng/ml) than in control geese (22.7 ± 4.09 ng/ml). Plasma triiodothyronine (T3) level was also lower in the force-fed than in the control group, but the difference was not significant (1.87 ± 0.23 ng/ml and 2.11 ± 0.28 ng/ml, respectively). Plasma total protein (TP, 45.2 ± 4.5 g/l), albumin (ALB, 16.51 ± 2.8 g/l), (-carotene (BC, 3504 ± 3107 µg/l), retinol (ROL, 1160 ± 505 µg/l), retinyl palmitate (RP, 1745 ± 405 µg/l) and total cholesterol (TCh, 4.32 ± 0.55 mmol/l) levels were elevated in the force-fed group as compared to the control (TP = 36.4 ± 5.1 g/l, ALB = 15.6 ± 0.9 g/l, BC = 1657 ± 1681 µg/l, ROL = 687 ± 375 µg/l, RP = 1398 ± 607 µg/l, and TCh = 2.83 ± 1.98 mmol/l). All differences were significant except those found for albumin and (-carotene. No significant sex- or genotype-related effects were observed for these parameters.
Authors:J. Orbán, Kinga Pozsonyi, Krisztina Szarka, Szilvia Barkó, Emőke Bódis and D. Lőrinczy
The thermodynamic properties of the ADP- and ATP-actin filaments were
compared by the method of differential scanning calorimetry. The lower melting
point for the ADP-F-actin filament (58.4 vs. 64.5°C for ATP-F-actin) indicated
that compared to the ATP-actin filaments its structure was less resistant
to heat denaturation. The detailed thermodynamic characterisation of the proteins
was carried out by the analysis of the calorimetric enthalpy, the entropy
and the free enthalpy changes. All of the determined parameters gave lower
values to the ADP-actin filaments than to the ATP-actin filaments. The calculated
values of the activation energy also demonstrated that compared to the ADP-F-actin
the ATP-F-actin was thermodynamically more resistant to the denaturing effect
Based on all of this information we have concluded that the actin
filament prepared from ADP containing magnesium saturated actin monomers at
pH 8.0 is thermodynamically less stable than the ones obtained from ATP-actin
Authors:P. Kovács, József Gábor Joó, V. Tamás, Z. Molnár, D. Burik-Hajas, J. Bódis and L. Kornya
We aimed to assess the etiological role of apoptotic genes Bcl-2 and Bax in the background of major obstetric and gynaecological diseases.
Placental tissue samples were collected from 101 pregnancies with intrauterine growth restriction and 104 pregnancies with premature birth with 140 controll samples from term, eutrophic newborns. In addition, gene expression assessment of the genes Bax and Bcl-2 was performed in 101 uterine leiomyoma tissue samples at our disposal with 110 control cases. Gene expression levels were assessed by PCR method.
The expression of the Bcl-2 gene was decreased in placental samples with intrauterine growth restriction. Significant overexpression of the proapoptotic Bax gene was detected in samples from premature infants. Antiapoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression was found to be significantly increased in fibroid tissues.
Apoptosis plays a crucial role in the development of the most common OB/GYN conditions. Decrease in the placental expression of the antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2 may upset the balance of programmed cell death.
Authors:E. Bódis, J. Nosek, N. Oertel, B. Tóth, E. Hornung and R. Sousa
The spatial distribution of bivalves in relation to environmental conditions was studied along a second- and third order stream — medium-sized river (River Ipoly) — large river (River Danube) continuum in the Hungarian Danube River system. Quantitative samples were collected four times in 2007 and a total of 1662 specimens, belonging to 22 bivalve species were identified. Among these species, two are endangered (Pseudanodonta complanata, Unio crassus) and five are invasive (Dreissena polymorpha, D. rostriformis bugensis, Corbicula fluminea, C. fluminalis, Anodonta woodiana) in Hungary. The higher density presented by Pisidium subtruncatum, P. supinum, P. henslowanum and C. fluminea suggests that these species may have a key role in this ecosystem. Three different faunal groups were distinguished but no significant temporal change was detected. The lowest density and diversity with two species (P. casertanum and P. personatum) occurred in streams. The highest density and diversity was found in the River Ipoly, in the side arms of the Danube and in the main arm of the Danube with sand and silt substrate, being dominated by P. subtruncatum and P. henslowanum. Moderate density and species richness were observed in the main arm of the Danube with pebble and stone substrate, being dominated by C. fluminea and S. rivicola. Ten environmental variables were found to have significant influence on the distribution of bivalves, the strongest explanatory factors being substrate types, current velocity and sedimentological characteristics.
Authors:Agnes Koppan, J. Hamori, I. Vranics, J. Garai, I. Kriszbacher, J. Bodis, G. Rebek-Nagy and M. Koppan
To assess potential individual factors influencing quality of life and pain scores of patients suffering from histologically confirmed endometriosis. Study using a questionnaire among patients of reproductive age undergoing laparoscopy with a presumed diagnosis of endometriosis. Details of fertility, previous treatments and quality of life, sexual activity, as well as linear pain scores for several symptoms, were recorded. Details of intraoperative findings were also collected and only those data were used where endometriosis was intraoperatively and histologically proven. A questionnaire before surgery gathered information from women on the following groups of variables: age, marital status, education, reproductive and medical history including previous pregnancies and parity, knowledge of accompanying pelvic disorders, regular sport activity, as well as general quality of life estimates including self-image. Pelvic pain was scored using a visual analogue scale. Data were statistically evaluated. Eighty-one patients complaining about persistent pelvic pain were later intraoperatively and histologically proven to have endometriosis. Thirty-one of them (38.2%) reported regular sport as part of their daily life schedule while 50 of them (61.8%) performed no physical activity at all. Fourteen patients among regular exercisers and 33 patients among those without physical activity reported the effectiveness of painkillers for pelvic pain, corresponding to 45.1% and 66% of these subgroups, respectively (difference statistically significant, p<0.05). Based on our results, we can conclude, that taking painkillers might be less effective among endometriosis patients performing regular daily sport activities, and, thus it might impose them to an unnecessary burden of possible side-effects.