Authors:P. Kuroda, P. Daniel, A. Nevissi, J. Beck and J. Meason
The concentrations of89Sr,90Sr,210Pb and210Po were measured in a series of rain samples collected at Fayetteville (36°N, 94°W), Arkansas, after the 14th Chinese test
of March 18, 1972, which occurred at Lop Nor (40°N, 90°E), China. Approximately concordant tropospheric residence times were
obtained from the89Sr/90Sr and210Po/210Pb ratios in rain. The89Sr/90Sr ratios were also measured for the rain samples collected at Tokyo (36°N, 140°E), Japan, and at Ankara (40°N, 33°E), Turkey.
Authors:S. Dabney, D. Swindle, J. Beck, G. Francis and E. Schweikert
An analytical method is described for the determination of trace amounts of sulfur by charged particle activation analysis.
The method consists of proton irradiation followed by a rapid radiochemical separation of the product nuclide,34m Cl. This procedure has been applied to a number of pure metal samples which range in sulfur content from 0.3 to 30 ppm. All
analyses were repeated several times to ensure consistent results and to better evaluate experimental detection limits and
systematic errors. The results indicate that sulfur determinations can be performed at a concentration of less than 1.0 ppm.
Activation curves are presented for the reactions S(d,x)34mCl, S(p,x)34mCl, and the interfering reaction35Cl(p, pn)34mCl.
Authors:J. Beck, H. C. Liedtke, S. Widler, F. Altermatt, S. P. Loader, R. Hagmann, S. Lang and K. Fiedler
Bergmann’s rule predicts increasing body sizes at higher elevations. The elevational Rapoport’s rule predicts an increase of elevational range size with higher elevations. Both rules have often been related to effects of temperature. Larger bodies allow more efficient heat preservation at lower temperature, explaining Bergmann’s rule. Higher temperature variability may select for adaptations that allow increased range sizes, explaining Rapoport’s rule. The generality of both rules has been challenged and evidence towards explanatory mechanisms has been equivocal. We investigated temperature and its variability as explanations for Bergmann’s and Rapoport’s rule in moths along an elevation gradient in Switzerland. In particular, we tested for relationships between elevation, temperature and body size across almost 300 species of Macrolepidoptera along a gradient from 600 to 2400 m a.s.l. The gradient was resampled throughout the vegetation season, which allowed assessing temperature effects independently from elevation. We controlled analyses for covariate traits of moths and their phylogeny. We found a positive relationship between body size and elevation, but no link with temperature. Furthermore, there was no positive link between average elevation and elevational range, but there was between temperature variability and elevational range. We conclude that mechanisms other than temperature can lead to increasing body sizes with elevation (supporting Bergmann’s pattern, but not the mechanism). Contrary to that, data support the mechanism for Rapoport’s rule: high temperature variability is associated with large ranges. However, because temperature variability is not necessarily increasing with elevation, it may not always lead to the geographic pattern predicted.