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The thermal decompositions of divalent cobalt, cadmium, nickel and copper salicylates and intermediates formed during the decomposition processes were investigated by means of thermogravimetry. Two intermediates were identified in each case, except for copper(II) salicylate.
The apparent tendency to underestimate the uncertainty of experimentally determined half-life values of radionuclides is discussed. It is argued that the uncertainty derived from a least-squares analysis of a decay curve is prone to error. As it is quite common for a series of activity measurement results to be autocorrelated, the prerequisite of randomness of data for common statistical tests to apply is not fulfilled. In this work, an alternative data analysis method is applied that leads to a more realistic uncertainty budget. The uncertainty components are being subdivided in three categories according to the relative frequency at which they occur, an appropriate uncertainty propagation formula applied and then the total uncertainty obtained from an independent sum. An attempt is made to apply the protocol to problematic cases in literature, yet it is clear that the reporting is usually incomplete for a full uncertainty analysis. Suggestions are made for a concise but more complete reporting style, for the sake of traceability.
Some modifications are presented to Sima’s simple analytical model for the calculation of the total detection efficiency of a well-type γ-ray detector, aiming at improving its accuracy and broadening its applicability. The modifications pertain to some general improvements in the photon transmission probabilities through absorbing materials and implementation of specific equations for solid angle and mean path length through materials that describe the case of eccentrically positioned sources as well as volume sources. In particular, some improvement is achieved by implementing a contribution from elastic scattering effects.
Utilizing primarily instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and other analytical methods as many as 61 elements were quantitatively surveyed in 170 U.S. whole coals, 70 washed coals, and 40 bench samples. Data on areal and vertical distributions in various regions were obtained along with extensive information on the mode of occurrence of various elements in the coal matrix itself.
The fluorescent excitation analysis equipment and techniques developed at the University of California, San Francisco are reviewed and the recent advances and their impact on extending the applicability are discussed.