Authors:P. Pech, J. Dolanský, R. Hrdlička, and J. Lepš
We examined the response of communities of four groups of organisms (plants, snails, ants and spiders) in a small scale mosaic of 8-years mown and unmown plots in a wet meadow in Central Europe. The experimental setup consisted of 7 unmown and 8 regularly mown 4 m2 plots in checkerboard arrangement. Eight years after the start of the experiment, the plant community structure diverged in response to mowing/nonmowing, both in species composition and structure. Both bryophyte and vascular plant species numbers were significantly higher in the mown plots. In unmown plots, bryophytes nearly disappeared and plots were dominated by the tall tussock grass Molinia caerulea. Both diversity and abundance of snails were higher in unmown plots than in mown ones. Ant nests were more abundant in mown plots and species composition differed between mown and unmown plots. We captured significantly more individuals of spiders in mown plots but we did not find any difference in species composition. We conclude that the 8-years duration of different management of 4 m2 plots was sufficient to establish different communities in low movable organisms, whereas these plots are probably too small to host different assemblages of organisms with good active dispersal abilities.
Authors:K. Štamberg, P. Beneš, J. Mizera, J. Dolanský, D. Vopálka, and K. Chalupská
A general model, the so called Mean Molecular Weight Model (MMWM), of complexation of metal cations (Mez+) with macromolecular polyanions of humic acid (HAp-) is proposed. The model is based on the results of previous studies of the electrophoretic mobility of humate complexes and assumes that the complexation proceeds by consecutive neutralization of the dissociated carboxyl groups of the central polyanion HAp- with Mez+ cations. It reflects the macromolecular character of humic acid, applies molar concentrations of reacting components with equations for stability constants and incorporates also the mean charge of humic macromolecules. The model has been verified with experimental data obtained in the study of complexation of Eu(III) with Aldrich humic acid using ion exchange (Amberlite IR-120), over a broad range of [Eu] to [HA] ratio, at pH 4 and 7.