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A study has been conducted of the leaching and ion exchange behavior of ashed and unashed human bone. It has been shown that absorption of uranium does not depend on the presence of organic material in bone. High levels of the element in archaeological bone samples thus reflect inorganic ion exchange which could, in principle, continue indefinitely. The easier loss of chlorine than sodium has been shown not to be an indication of the mummification of archaeological remains. The observed fixation of chlorine in bone by ashing has not previously been reported.

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A new utility program for processing data in neutron activation analysis (NAA) has been developed for use on MS-DOS microcomputers. Peak areas are read from ASCII data files of gamma-ray spectra which have been processed by a Gaussian peak fitting program, GAMANAL-PC. Elemental concentrations are then calculated by this new program, QUACANAL, via a semi-absolute algorithm that uses pre-determined activation constants. User-defined ASCII library files are employed to specify the elements of interest required for analysis, and (n, p) and (n, ) interferences are taken into account. The program has been written in turbo PASCAL, is menu driven and contains options for processing data from cyclic NAA. An interactive philosophy has been used in designing the program.

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Despite the significant associations between the short (S) allele of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and various psychiatric disorders, the S allele has persisted at relatively high prevalence in the human population worldwide. Based on findings of greater amygdala activity among S allele carriers both at rest and in response to threat-relevant stimuli, the S allele appears to be associated with greater vigilance for danger; therefore we hypothesized that the S allele would be associated with lower scores on risk-related traits. In order to test this hypothesis we assessed the 5-HTTLPR genotype of 81 individuals of European ancestry and tested for an effect of genotype on two dimensions of risk-related behavior: venturesomeness and impulsivity. Results revealed significantly lower venturesomeness and a trend toward lower impulsivity associated with the S allele. We speculate that relatively greater vigilance for and avoidance of danger may counteract the disease risk associated with the 5-HTTLPR S allele and contribute to its persistence at high prevalence in the human population. Replication in a larger sample is necessary in order to confirm these associations.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors: Thomas McLaughlin, Kenneth Blum, Bruce Steinberg, Edward J. Modestino, Lyle Fried, David Baron, David Siwicki, Eric R. Braverman, and Rajendra D. Badgaiyan


Addictive-like behaviors (e.g., hoarding and shopping) may be the result of the cumulative effects of dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter genetic variants as well as elevated stress levels. We, therefore, propose that dopamine homeostasis may be the preferred goal in combating such challenging and unwanted behaviors, when simple dopaminergic activation through potent agonists may not provide any resolution.

Case presentation

C.J. is a 38-year-old, single, female, living with her mother. She has a history of substance use disorder as well as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, inattentive type. She had been stable on buprenorphine/naloxone combination and amphetamine, dextroamphetamine mixed salts for many years when unexpectedly she lost her job for oversleeping and not calling into work. KB200z (a pro-dopamine compound) was added to her regimen for complaints of low drive and motivation. After taking this nutraceutical for 4 weeks, she noticed a marked improvement in her mental status and many behaviors. She noted that her shopping and hoarding addictions had appreciably decreased. Furthermore, her lifelong history of terrifying lucid dreams was eliminated. Finally, she felt more in control; her locus of control shifted from external to more internal.


The hypothesis is that C.J.’s reported, behavioral, and psychological benefits resulted from the pro-dopamine-regulating effect of KB220Z across the brain reward system.


This effect, we surmise, could be the result of a new dopamine balance, across C.J.’s brain reward system. Dopamine homeostasis is an effect of KB220Z seen in both animal and human placebo-controlled fMRI experiments.

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