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A strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in the food industry was propagated in the presence of zirconium ascorbate or zirconium citrate complex. The propagation of the yeast was slightly inhibited by zirconium (Zr) in a complex form, but it was not toxic. The Zr content in the fermentation medium decreased faster when using ascorbate complex than the citrate complex. The ascorbate complex was better accumulated by the yeast (4300 mg Zr g-1 dry mass) than the citrate complex (1600 mg Zr g-1 dry mass). The total amino acid content of the yeast cells decreased in the presence of both complexes. The concentration of some amino acids [threonine (Thr), proline (Pro), phenylalanine and cysteine (Cys)] was increased by 10-39% in the medium containing Zr ascorbate, while that of other amino acids [arginine (Arg), serine (Ser), methionine (Met) and glutamic acid (Glu)] decreased by 18-60%. As a result of the presence of zirconium citrate the concentration of Glu, aspartic acid (Asp), leucine (Leu), Thr, valine (Val), Ser, Arg, Pro and Met decreased by 19-32%, and the concentration of Cys increased by 59%.

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The biochemical characteristics and antibiotic susceptibility of 12 Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale strains isolated from chickens and turkeys suffering from respiratory clinical signs and the survival of some isolates on egg-shell and within chicken eggs during hatching were examined. All O. rhinotracheale strains showed typical biochemical characteristics. Among the 16 drugs examined, penicillin G, ampicillin (MICs ranging from ≤ 0.06 μg/ml to 1 μg/ml), ceftazidim (with MICs from ≤ 0.06 μg/ml to 0.12 μg/ml), erythromycin, tylosin, tilmicosin (with some exceptions MICs ranged from ≤ 0.06 μg/ml to 1 μg/ml) and tiamulin (MICs varied from ≤ 0.06 μg/ml to 2 μg/ml) were the most effective. Lincomycin, oxytetracycline and enrofloxacin also gave good inhibitions, but with most strains in a higher concentration (MICs ranged in most cases from 2 μg/ml to 8 μg/ml). The other antibiotics inhibited the growth of O. rhinotracheale only in very high concentrations (colistin) or not at all (apramycin, spectinomycin, polymyxin B). At 37 °C, O. rhinotracheale did not survive on egg-shell for more than 24 hours, while upon inoculation into embryonated chicken eggs it killed embryos by the ninth day, and from the 14th day post-inoculation no O. rhinotracheale could be cultured from the eggs at all. These results suggest that O. rhinotracheale is not transmitted via eggs during hatching.

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Fourier transform near infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR) has been developed for determining the fat and protein contents of hard, semi-hard and processed cheeses. Multivariate calibration models were carried out by partial least squares (PLS) regression. The diffuse reflection spectra of different type of lyophilized cheeses were measured by FT-NIR analyser in the 800–2500 nm spectral range. The calibration set of 62 samples were validated by leave-oneout cross-validation and by prediction set of 31 samples. The optimal result for fat content (root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV)=1.0; R2=99.1%, PLS factor= 6) was obtained when the spectra were preprocessed by first derivation (FD) combined with multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) and smoothing. The optimal result for protein content (RMSECV=1.4, R2=97.2%, PLS factor=6) was observed when the first derivation combined with straight line subtraction (SLS) and smoothing spectral preprocessing method was applied.

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Heat shock treatment of near isogenic barley lines induced susceptibility against powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, Bgh). When barley lines were immersed into hot water (48–49 °C) for 20 seconds one day before inoculation with Bgh race A6, the heat treatment increased susceptibility in susceptible barley cv. Ingrid and in its near-isogenic barley lines carrying different effective resistance genes. Microscopic investigations indicated vigorous development of the pathogen not only on heat treated susceptible Ingrid and resistant Mla, but also on Mlg-resistant and even mlo-resistant lines. However, when longer heat stress was used, infection density increased gradually on the susceptible Ingrid leaves, and the 40–50 sec heat treatment induced the development of visible powdery mildew colonies even on mlo leaves. Heat stress significantly increased leakage of ions from leaf segments from all barley lines with or without specific resistance genes and caused a late decrease of SOD and a slight increase in CAT enzyme activities, which correlated with the slightly down-regulated levels of hydrogen peroxide in the heat treated barley leaves. Significant increase of RNase activities was found after heat stress, and there was a slight degradation of total DNA as a consequence of heat pretreatment in all barley lines.

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Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Nándor Fodor
,
Gabriella Máthéné Gáspár
, and
Géza J. Kovács

A 4M tápanyagmodell adatellátásával és gyakorlati alkalmazásaival foglalkozunk e cikk keretében. A modell futásához napi időjárási, növényi,valamint talajtani adatok szükségesek. Országos és regionális időjárási adatbázist építettünk fel 169 magyarorszá__

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A szimulációs növénytermesztési modellek közvetlen célja, hogy a nagyon bonyolult légkör–talaj–növény rendszer folyamatait, beleértve az emberi tevékenységet is, matematikai eszközökkel leírják, és számítógép segítségével szimulálják. A végső cél azonban az, hogy ezen modellek felhasználásával olyan kérdésekre kapjunk válas__

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Infection of some leaves of Xanthi-nc tobacco with tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) induces systemic acquired resistance (SAR) in remote leaves of the plant to a second (challenge) infection, and therefore produces only a limited necrotization in the resistant leaves. Here we show that the levels of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide are lower in the remote infected leaves exhibiting the SAR. Treatment of leaves of Xanthi-nc tobacco with benzothiadiazole (BTH) also suppresses tissue necrotization and accumulation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide upon TMV inoculation. However, both of these reactive oxygen species are up-regulated and tissue necrotization is increased in a transgenic NahG tobacco, which is unable to produce a SAR response. Treatment of TMV-infected NahG leaves with BTH also resulted in a reduced level of necrotization and an attenuated accumulation of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide after inoculation with TMV. Thus, the level of reactive oxygen species seems to be correlated with the size and number of necrotic lesions caused by TMV. It would seem that reactive oxygen species play a pivotal role in TMV-induced cell death response.

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Absztrakt:

A laboratóriumi vizsgálatoknak kiemelten fontos szerepe van számos betegség esetében a diagnózis meghatározásában. A mérési eredményeket a laboratóriumok által megadott normálértékekhez hasonlítjuk. Néhány esetben ezek a nemtől és a kortól is függenek. Az alkalikus foszfatáz esetében ritkán vesszük figyelembe, hogy bizonyos életszakaszokban eltérő referenciaértékekkel kell számolnunk a két nemben. A napi gyakorlat során gyakran az életkorral összefüggő változásokat sem vesszük figyelembe. Különösen igaz ez akkor, ha a laboratórium nem ad meg életkori normálértékeket. Egy másik probléma lehet, hogy az alkalikus foszfatáz esetében a normálértékeket meghaladó, magasabb eredményekre fókuszálunk, és nem tulajdonítunk hasonló fontosságot a referenciahatár alá eső értékeknek. Természetesen soha nem egy-egy laboratóriumi paramétert, hanem a beteg panaszait, a fizikális vizsgálat során látott képet és az egyéb diagnosztikai eredményeket kell értékelnünk a pontos diagnózis felállításához. A következőkben szeretnénk felhívni a figyelmet egy gyakran mért laboratóriumi paraméter, az alkalikus foszfatáz szerepére egyes betegségek diagnosztikájában, különös tekintettel az életkori normálértékek alatt mért esetekben. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(26): 1003–1007.

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Abstract  

The migration of HTO from a point source was studied in the soil of the storage of radioactive waste at horizontal distances of 10 to 40 cm from the source between 2 and 4 m depths at 5 different rainfalls, up to 7641/m2. The water movement changed from 0.17 cm/l (at 10 cm) to 0.28 cm/l (at 40 cm distance) when 186 1 was irrigated, while at 764 1 rainfall it was found to be 0.11 cm/l at every distance. The estimated parameters of a three-dimensional migration model constructed to characterize HTO movement revealed that the HTO distribution migrates downwards in a small, about 1 m thick layer with an initial rate of 0.17 cm/l to slow down to about 0.05 cm/l after 50 years. The distribution is spreading horizontally with a constant rate of about 0.08 cm/l.

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