Summary After an introductory section on problems and results concerning expansions of real numbers by given algorithms, I shall prove several new theorems for β-expansions with non-integral β. For the special case βn - βn−1=1, I shall re-obtain and sharpen known results by a neat approach, reducing the usual questions to sums of independent and identically distributed random variables.
Sorption of Sr on five Slovak bentonites of deposits has been studied with the use of batch technique. In the experiments
there have been used natural, chemically modified and irradiated samples, in three different kinds of grain size. The pH influence
on sorption of strontium on bentonites, pH change after sorption and influence of competitive ions have been studied. Distribution
ratios have been determined for bentonite–strontium solution system as a function of contact time, pH and sorbate concentration.
The data have been interpreted in term of Langmuir isotherm. The uptake of Sr has been rapid and the sorption of strontium
has increased by increasing pH. The percentage sorption has decreased with increasing metal concentrations. The pH value after
sorption for the natrificated forms of bentonite starts already in the alkaline area and moves to the higher values. For the
natural bentonites the values occur in the neutral or in the acidic area. Sorption of Sr has been suppressed by presence of
competitive cations as follows: Ba2+ > Ca2+ > Mg2+ > NH4+ > K+ > Na+. By sorption on natrificated samples colloidal particles and pH value increase have been formed. The bentonite exposure as
a result of interaction of γ-rays has led to expansion of the specific surface, increasing of the sorption capacity and to
the change in the solubility of the clay materials.
Authors:O. Rosskopfová, M. Galamboš, J. Ometáková, M. Čaplovičová and P. Rajec
The sorption of copper on synthetic hydroxyapatite was investigated using a batch method and radiotracer technique. The hydroxyapatite
sample prepared by a wet precipitation process was of high crystallinity with Ca/P ratio of 1.688. The sorption of copper
on hydroxyapatite was pH independent ranging from 4 to 6 as a result of buffering properties of hydroxyapatite. The adsorption
of copper was rapid and the percentage of Cu sorption was >98% during the first 15–30 min of the contact time. The experimental
data for sorption of copper have been interpreted in the term of Langmuir isotherm. The sorption of Cu2+ ions was performed by ion-exchange with Ca2+ cations on the crystal surface of hydroxyapatite under experimental conditions. The competition effect of Zn2+, Fe2+ and Pb2+ towards Cu2+ sorption was stronger than that of Co2+, Ni2+ and Ca2+ ions. The ability of the bivalent cations to depress the sorption of copper on hydroxyapatite was in the following order
Pb2+ > Fe2+ > Zn2+ > Co2+ ≈ Ni2+.
Authors:Sz. Szélpál, Zs. Kohány, E. Fogarassy, I. Galambos, A. Koris, J. Csanádi, Gy. Vatai and C. Hodúr
The largest quantities of by-products of dairy processing originates from the cheese making. Whey proteins are used for animal feeding and human nutrition as well, for example in dry soups, infant formulas, and supplements. The fat components of the whey might impair its use. The aim of our experiments was to investigate the separation of the lipid fraction of whey. The microfiltration is said to be a gentle and energy efficient method for this task. During the measurements 0.2 μm microfiltration membranes were used and the membrane separation was enhanced by vibration, inserting static mixer and air sparging. The de-fatting efficiency, the retention of the whey components, the flux values, and the resistances in different combinations were compared in this paper.
Authors:J. Ometáková, P. Rajec, V. Csiba, M. Leporis, M. Štefečka, P. Vlk, M. Galamboš and O. Rosskopfová
64Cu (T1/2 = 12,7 h, β− 37,1 %, β+ 17,9 %, EC 41 %) is a useful radioisotopes for positron emission tomography radiopharmaceutical. We used the reaction route
64Ni(p,n)64Cu for the 64Cu preparation. A basic disadvantage of this route, a high price of the enriched target material, was eliminated by using
very simple recycling procedure. Compact solid target irradiation system was installed at the end of the external beam line
of the IBA Cyclone 18/9 cyclotron. In this paper, the irradiation of 64Ni target and separation of 64Cu from a target material is described. The separation was achieved by anion exchange chromatography with HCl as a elution
solution. The distribution ratio for different HCl concentrations on Bio-Rad AG1-X8 and elution profile of 64Cu were investigated. 64Cu production rate for 100 mg 64Ni of 99.09 % purity (ISOFLEX) on gold target was 104 MBq/μAh. The activity of the product was checked by ionisation chamber
(Curiementor), gamma spectrometry using a HPGe detector and liquid scintillation counting using the triple-to-double coincidence
ratio method. The separation process of 64Cu was made in a home-made separation module.
Authors:M. Galamboš, M. Daňo, O. Rosskopfová, F. Šeršeň, J. Kufčáková, R. Adamcová and P. Rajec
One of the basic prerequisites for the use of bentonite as engineering barrier in deep geological repositories for radioactive
waste and spent nuclear fuel is their stability against ionizing radiation stemming from radionuclides present in radioactive
waste and spent nuclear fuel. The aim of this study was to compare the changes in the adsorption properties of selected Slovak
bentonites in relation to uranium fission products (137Cs and 90Sr), prior to and after irradiation of bentonites with a 60Co γ-source and specifying the changes in the structure of Slovak bentonites induced by γ-radiation. The changes in irradiated
natural forms of Slovak bentonites and the changes in their natrified analogues and fractions with different grain sizes were
studied from five Slovak deposits: Jelšový potok, Kopernica, Lastovce, Lieskovec and Dolná Ves. The EPR spectra of bentonites
from deposits Jelšový potok and Lieskovec with absorbed doses of 104 and 105 Gy γ-rays showed no changes in the structure of the studied Slovak bentonites. The changes, which in terms of structure destabilization
can be considered insignificant, occurred only in bentonites with absorbed doses of γ-radiation as much as 1 MGy. The absorbed
dose of 1 MGy γ-radiation did not have an effect on the adsorption of cesium on every studied bentonite. Changes that can
also be regarded as insignificant occurred only during strontium adsorption, especially on Fe–bentonite from deposit Lieskovec
and Ca–Mg–bentonite from deposit Jelšový potok, when an increase in the adsorption capacity occurred. Attention should be
paid in further research of this topic which would require carrying out experiments on bentonite samples with absorbed doses
higher by several orders of magnitude.
Authors:M. Galamboš, V. Paučová, J. Kufčáková, O. Rosskopfová, P. Rajec and R. Adamcová
The physical and chemical properties of illitic clay minerals from Slovak deposit suitable for application in engineering
barriers for high level radioactive waste repositories and spent nuclear fuels were studied. The isolation of spent nuclear
fuels and high level radioactive wastes from the outer environment in a deep repository is gained by means of a system of
multiple engineering and natural sealing barriers. Vital segments in a multiple barrier system are clay rocks, of which bentonites
represent the most suitable clay material. Cs-adsorption on fine fractions of adsorbents (bentonites from three Slovak deposits:
Jelšový potok J15, Kopernica K15, Lieskovec L15 and montmorillonite K10) has been studied with using batch of radiometric
techniques. Adsorption parameters have been determined for adsorbent-cesium solution system as a function of contact time
and adsorbate concentration. The influences of pH change, the effect of competitive cations, complex-forming organic chelating
agents on the adsorption of Cs have also been studied.