Authors:M. Ginic-Markovic, N. Choudhury, J. Matisons and D. Williams
A two-pack polyurethane coating was analyzed using thermoanalytical techniques. The curing reaction, monitored using pressure differential calorimetry (PDSC), rheometry and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) shows the temperature dependency of activation energy and hence rate of curing. In-situ ATR-FTIR shows the formation of urethane linkage over time. The decomposition behavior carried out under non-isothermal mode using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows bimodal behavior. The activation energies of the initial step (10% decomposition) from both iso and non-isothermal experiments are in very good agreement with each other. The use of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) shows the difference in glass transition behavior (Tg) and elastic modulus (E') due to the different state of cure. Also the coating exhibits a very broad loss modulus peak (E'') indicating higher energy dissipation with deformation.
Authors:J. Ginés, M. Arias, A. Rabasco and P. Sánchez-Soto
This paper examines binary polyethyleneglycol (molecular weight 6000)-Triamterene (PEG 6000-T) solid dispersions (5–40 w/w%
of T) prepared by the fusion carrier method, and physical mixtures (5–90 w/w% of T) are studied using DSC and Hot Stage Microscopy
(HSM). The use of these combined techniques allows to explain the thermal behaviour on the basis of dissolution of T in the
liquid carrier according to the progressive disappearance of the original crystals over a wide range of temperatures (ca.
100°C). The above fact, and possibly the sublimation of T, also could explain that at low T content (<- 30 w/w%), DSC curves
exhibited only a single endothermic peak and/or weak endothermic peaks. On the basis of DSC data, a tentative phase diagram
of this system is proposed.
Authors:M. Ginic-Markovic, N. Roy Choudhury, J. Matisons and N. Dutta
The present investigation focuses on matching cure characteristics of EPDM rubber compound and polyurethane (PU) coating using
temperature modulated and pressure differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC, PDSC).
TMDSC provides a detailed and better understanding of the curing process of model rubber system as well as complex automotive
rubber compounds. The low level of unsaturation present in EPDM, results in the small heat of vulcanization (2–5 J g–1), which is difficult to accurately measure using conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thus, curing of highly
filled EPDM compound was investigated using TMDSC.
The kinetics of PU curing was monitored using pressure DSC (PDSC), and heat of curing was determined as 4.2 J g–1 at 10C min–1 heating rate. It is found that complex automotive compounds and the PU coating are curing simultaneously.
Authors:J. Ginés, M. Arias, A. Rabasco and P. Sánchez-Soto
Thermal analysis (DSC and HSM), and equilibrium solubility determinations were carried out to elucidate the mechanism of interaction
at the solid state in the binary system triamterene-D-mannitol. Physical mixtures (5–90% w/w triamterene) and solid dispersions (5 up to 40% w/w triamterene) were prepared and
From DSC and HSM results, the thermal changes were associated with the variations in composition of the binary mixture, being
more pronounced in the range 20–50% w/w. The binary phase diagram was proposed, although the exact position of the eutectic
was uncertain. This is in accordance with a partial dissolution process detected by HSM.
A linear increase in the solubility of triamterene with increasing aqueous mannitol concentration was obtained. The thermodynamic
parameters of the solution properties were calculated, with an activation energy value of 96.081 kJ/mole. The solubilization
increase was associated with complexation processes and hydrogen bonding formation.
Authors:M. Avilés, J. Ginés, J. del Rio, J. Pascual, J. Pérez-Rodríguez and P. Sánchez-Soto
This paper examines the polymerization of acrylonitrile to poly(acrylonitrile)(PAN), and its cyclization, in bulk form and using N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent in which both monomer and polymer are soluble. Thermal analysis of the resultant products after polymerization has been performed by DSC and pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). Scanning electron microscopy has been used to study the morphology of the resultant products and after thermal treatments. The DSC thermal curve of PAN-DMF sample is quite different from the PAN bulk sample, showing a single sharp exothermic peak associated with nitrile group polymerization (cyclization) of PAN at lower temperature (240°C) than that of bulk PAN sample (314°C). Cyclization of PAN was confirmed by IR spectroscopy. It was found that the amide molecules are difficult to eliminate completely in the product obtained after the polymerization reaction, even after prolonged heating at 110°C, and remain occluded. The formation of a complex by dipolar bonding is also possible and it is discussed. It is concluded that the amount of heat evolved as well as the temperature interval over which it is released are influenced by the chemical processing of PAN when using DMF as solvent of both monomer and polymer. Pyrolysis of these PAN samples revealed the release of occluded molecules of DMF, and several compounds containing nitrogen produced from the thermal degradation processes. All these results are interesting to know the chemical processing of carbon fibres and activated carbon fibres from PAN modified precursors.
Authors:J. M. Ginés, M. J. Arias, J. R. Moyano, Cs. Novak, G. Pokol and P. J. Sánchez-Soto
A thermal study using DSC and Hot Stage Microscopy (HSM) was carried out to investigate the interaction in solid state of the binary system PEG 4000 — oxazepam, and to establish their phase diagram. The eutectic composition, which melting occurs at lower temperature as compared with the pure components, has been determined. The results obtained by DSC and HSM have indicated that PEG 4000 — oxazepam mixtures displays no obvious incompatibilities, and that the system shows a typical eutectic behaviour. However because of the closeness of the melting of PEG 4000 to the eutectic temperature, it was difficult to determine precisely the eutectic composition and temperature on the basis of DSC measurements alone. The use of heats of fusion corresponding to physical mixtures allowed an estimation of the eutectic composition at 6% w/w oxazepam. Additional information of temperature (57.6‡C) and composition (5–10% w/w oxazepam) of the eutectic was obtained by HSM using the contact method. This low melting temperature in this range of compositions offers advantages in terms of drug stability and easy manufacture.
Authors:I. MacDonald, S. Clarke, R. Pillar, M. Ginic-Markovic and J. Matisons
Summary Modulated temperature DSC was investigated, comparing data found experimentally to that derived from theory. Deviation from theory was found with regard to the amplitude of the modulated heat flow signal when large modulation amplitudes were employed in the experiment. These deviations were determined to be dependent on the absolute temperature and it was concluded that further investigation of the heat flow signal obtained during MTDSC experiments is required.
Authors:P. Sánchez-Soto, M. Villacampa, J. Ginés, A. Ruiz-Conde, M. Avilés and M. Arias
Several derivatives containing a new organic ring system, the tropane-6-spiro-5′-hydantoin structure (namely 8-alkyl-8-azabicyclo
[3.2.1.] octane-6-spiro-5′-imidazoline-2′,4′-diones) have been characterized by thermal (DSC and simultaneous DTA-TG-DTG)
and spectroscopic techniques (IR,1 H-NMR,13 C-NMR). X-ray powder diffraction and elemental analysis were applied for structural and molecular characterization. All the
compounds melt in the range 160–250°C and undergo decomposition with progressive mass loss after the solid-liquid thermal
transition with molecular degradation. It was found that tropane-6-spiro-5′-hydantoin derivatives with the hydantoin ring
in β position are thermally less stable than those containing this ring in α position.
Authors:P. Sánchez-Soto, J. Ginés, M. Arias, Cs. Novák and A. Ruiz-Conde
This paper studies the effect of molecular mass on the melting temperature, enthalpy and entropy of hydroxy-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). It aims to correlate the thermal behaviour of PEO polymers and their variation of molecular mass (MW). Samples ranging from 1500 to 200,000 isothermally treated at 373 K during 10 min, were investigated using DSC and Hot Stage Microscopy (HSM). On the basis of DSC and HSM results, melting temperatures were determined, and melting enthalpies and entropies were calculated. Considering the melting temperatures, it was found that the maximum or critical value of MW was found around 4000, and then these remain almost constant. This behaviour was interpreted assuming that lower MW fractions (MW<4000) crystallize in the form of extended chains and higher MW fractions (MW>4000), as folded chains. The melting enthalpies showed a scattering effect at least up to MW 35,000. It was difficult to obtain any relationship between melting enthalpies in J g–1 and MW. These variations seem to be of statistical nature. Corrected enthalpy data on a molar basis (kJ mol–1) exhibited a linear relationship with MW. Considering the solid—liquid equilibrium, the melting entropies (in kJ mol–1) were calculated. These values were more negative as compared with molar enthalpy increases. It was explained because the changes in melting temperatures are much smaller than those observed in the enthalpy values. Linear relationship between enthalpies andentropies as a function of MW was deduced.
Authors:J. Ginés, M. Arias, C. Novák, P. Sánchez-Soto, A. Ruiz-Conde and E. Morillo
The formation of crystalline inclusion complex of triamterene with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) was studied, evaluating the thermal
behaviour and dispersion state of this drug in different types of binary systems. Spray-drying and co-grinding (oscillating
mill) mixtures of triameterene with β-CD were prepared in 1∶1 molar ratio. The changes of crystalline properties of original
(untreated) triamterene, β-CD, and composites obtained by co-grinding and spray-drying were investigated in comparison with
those produced in simple physical mixtures. The thermal behaviour of the different samples was investigated using DTA. X-ray
diffraction was applied as a complementary technique. The results have been explained by formation of amorphous drug particles
on spray-drying samples and co-grinding or alternatively by means of a solid dispersion formation or a combination of these
two. A contamination effect by grinding media was also observed as increasing grinding time.