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The content of the potentially health-defensive and disease-preventive flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol, myricetin, apigenin and luteolin of 31 vegetables were determined by RP- HPLC with UV detection. Vegetables were purchased at the local markets in Budapest at a period of their most frequent consumption. Quercetin levels in the edible parts of most vegetables were generally below 10 mg kg &1, except for onions (67&121.5 mg kg &1), lettuce (13.5&35.0 mg kg &1), dill (74.5 mg kg &1), broccoli (15.5 mg kg &1) and spinach (272.2 mg kg &1). Kaempferol was below 30 mg kg &1 except for parsnip (66.4 mg kg &1) and leek (45.8 mg kg &1). Myricetin could only be detected in lettuce, Swedish turnip, parsley and celery leaves, and dill. Detectable amount of luteolin was in radishes, some representatives of Brassica, sweet peppers, celery leaves and spinach while apigenin was only in Swedish turnip, celery root and celery leaves. These data provide a basis for the evaluation of the average daily intake of Hungarian population and for an epidemiological evaluation of health-promoting effects of flavonoids.

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Culinary herbs and medicinal plants could be used as natural food ingredients to replace synthetic antioxidants. Two natural antioxidant preparations, namely Rosmol (liquid) and Rosmol-P (powder) were produced by extraction from a mixture of medicinal plants belonging to the Lamiaceaefamily, such as rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.),self heal(Prunella vulgaris L.)hyssop(Hyssoppus officinalis L.)and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.). The main active compound of the extract is supposed to be a phenolic (caffeic) acid derivative. The total polyphenol content of the preparations is very high, 8.72 g l-1for Rosmol and 93.7 g kg-1for Rosmol-P. The products acted as primary and secondary antioxidants, chelating transitional metal ions and inhibiting the autoxidation of linoleic acid. Rosmol and Rosmol-P scavenged free radicals formed during Fenton type reaction measured by chemiluminometry, and also exhibited strong antioxidant property in Randox TAS measurement. The antioxidant activity of the products was unchanged after six months of storage. According to the in vitro studies, the products are suitable to use as antioxidant ingredients instead of synthetic ones in lipid containing food products.

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For prevention of non-infectious diseases such as cancer, and cardiovascular disorders consumption of more and more fruits and vegetables is highly advised. Fruits of Ribes and Rubus species are very popular in Hungary. Antioxidant properties of these fruits are well known, but the values of the characteristics depend on several factors including species, cultivars, soil and climate conditions, water and nutrition supply, and so on. Phenolics in several cultivars of raspberry, blackberry and currants grown in Hungary were measured. Total polyphenols and anthocyanins were detected by spectrophotometric methods while flavonoids including apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol, myricetin, quercetin and also ellagic acid were quantified by RP-HPLC technique. Total polyphenol contents of raspberry (yellow and red cultivars), blackberry and currants (white, red and black cultivars) were 219, 244, 379, 333, 192 and 533 mg/100 g, respectively. The concentrations of anthocyanins in the same order were 1.0, 41.9, 145, 0.2, 46 and 354 mg/100 g. Apigenin, luteolin and kaempferol could not been detected in any of the samples. Ellagic acid (2.0 to 23.7 mg/100 g) could be measured in white and red raspberries, in blackberries, and in some red and white currant cultivars. Quercetin could be detected in all berry species ranging from 0.1 to 14.4 mg/100 g. Measurable amount of myricetin was observed only in black currant cultivars between 1.5 and 7.7 mg/100 g. Polyphenols including flavonoids and anthocyanins in berry fruits are important forms of natural antioxidants. These molecules play essential role in the prevention of diseases in the pathomechanism of which free radicals are involved. Berry fruits are good sources of antioxidants consumed either in fresh or in processed forms because of great susceptibility of polyphenols to heat and other physicochemical processes.

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Tomato is one of the most important sources of lycopene. The effect of water supply was investigated on lycopene content of Daniela F1

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: A. Lugasi, K. Neszlényi, J. Hóvári, K. V. Lebovics, A. Hermán, T. Ács, J. Gundel, and I. Bodó

Fat content and fatty acid composition were investigated in Musculus gluteus medius of pigs from two different breeds: traditional Hungarian Mangalica and a crossbreed of Hungarian Large White and Dutch Landrace. Animals of both varieties were divided into two groups and were kept individually on control or experimental mixtures of feeds. Experimental feed contained significantly higher amount of linoleic and linolenic acid than the control one. Significantly higher fat content was detected in meat of Mangalica pigs kept on both feed mixtures than in those of crossbred. The proportion of saturated fatty acids was nearly the same in the meat of both genotypes. More monounsaturated fatty acids were detected in Mangalica meat than in crossbred ones expressed in percent of total fatty acids and absolute amount, as well. As a result of experimental diet, percentage and absolute amount of oleic acid decreased significantly in both genotypes. Less polyunsaturated fatty acids expressed as percent of total acids were observed in the muscle of Mangalica than in those of crossbred ones. Absolute amount and the proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids (especially linoleic and linolenic acids) increased significantly as a result experimental diets. The ratio of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids changed beneficially in both genotypes consuming a diet containing 20% full-fat soy from 13.6:1 to 10.0:1 in Mangalica and from 15.4:1 to 10.3:1 in crossbred genotype. According to present results, it has became clear that the fatty acid composition of the meat of the traditional Hungarian Mangalica can be successfully modified by the diet, and this manipulation can make the meat healthier in spite of its high fat content.

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