The continued erection of nuclear installations which is expected in the future involves a greater production of long-lived
fission products, which result in a concentration increase in the biosphere, the hydrosphere and the atmosphere. In the frame
of a broad survey program, a routine method has been developed with the help of the European Communities to investigate the129I content of thyroid glands of cows. It is the purpose of this project to determine the present concentration situation of
this nuclide, which in the Federal Republic of Germany mainly concerns the North German low plains. Between autumn '76 and
summer '77 18 cows have been investigated with respect to129I, and thyroid glands have been taken at different times in November '76 and August '77. Without exception, the animals were
13-month old bulls, part of which has pastured, while the other part has been fed. The detection limit of the method is 20fCi
Authors:L. VanMiddlesworth, J. Handl, and P. Johns
appeared in the Journal of Radioanalytical and Nuclear Chemistry, Vol. 243, No. 2 (2000) 467–472.During the electronic submission of the paper the file was damaged, and parts were left out. In order to correct this, we publish the correct paper as a whole.Iodine-129 may be no radiation hazard but it is a useful marker. Animal thyroids concentrate the isotope to 4 orders of magnitude greater than the intake. This results in a potential biological and physical indicator of radioactive contamination. Since 1943, 129I/127I ratio in animal thyroids from the Northern Hemisphere has increased 2 to 5 orders of magnitude. Since 1985, thyroids of deer, living near a nuclear reprocessing facility have contained 129I which is 3 to 7 orders of magnitude greater than pre-nuclear levels. Limited measurements of 129I in thyroids from the Southern Hemisphere have shown little increase. An appendix is presented to show that 129I may be helpful to evaluate past radiation hazard from fission products.
Authors:S. Szidat, A. Schmidt, J. Handl, D. Jakob, R. Michel, H.-A. Synal, and M. Suter
The long-lived radionuclide 129I (T1/2 = 15.7 My) occurs in the nature in very low concentrations. Since the middle of our century the environmental levels of 129I have been dramatically changed as a consequence of civil and military use of nuclear fission. Its investigation in environmental materials is of interest for environmental surveillance, retrospective dosimetry and for the use as a natural and man-made fracers of environmental processes. We are comparing two analytical methods which presently are capable of determining 129I in environmental materials, namely radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Emphasis is laid upon the quality control and detection capabilities for the analysis of 129I in environmental materials. Some applications are discussed.
Authors:K. Inn, Zhichao Lin, Zhongyu Wu, C. McMahon, J. Filliben, P. Krey, M. Feiner, Chung-King Liu, R. Holloway, J. Harvey, I. Larsen, T. Beasley, C. Huh, S. Morton, D. McCurdy, P. Germain, J. Handl, M. Yamamoto, B. Warren, T. Bates, A. Holms, B. Harvey, D. Popplewell, M. Woods, S. Jerome, K. Odell, P. Young, and I. Croudace
In 1977, the Low-level Working Group of the International Committee on Radionuclide Metrology met in Boston, MA (USA) to define the characteristics of a new set of environmental radioactivity reference materials. These reference materials were to provide the radiochemist with the same analytical challenges faced when assaying environmental samples. It was decided that radionuclide bearing natural materials should be collected from sites where there had been sufficient time for natural processes to redistribute the various chemically different species of the radionuclides. Over the succeeding years, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), in cooperation with other highly experienced laboratories, certified and issued a number of these as low-level radioactivity Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) for fission and activation product and actinide concentrations. The experience of certifying these SRMs has given NIST the opportunity to compare radioanalytical methods and learn of their limitations. NIST convened an international workshop in 1994 to define the natural-matrix radionuclide SRM needs for ocean studies. The highest priorities proposed at the workshop were for sediment, shellfish, seaweed, fish flesh and water matrix SRMs certified for mBq per sample concentrations of 90 Sr, 137 Cs and 239 Pu + 240 Pu. The most recent low-level environmental radionuclide SRM issued by NIST, Ocean Sediment (SRM 4357) has certified and uncertified values for the following 22 radionuclides: 40 K, 90 Sr, 129 I, 137 Cs, 155 Eu, 210 Pb, 210 Po, 212 Pb, 214 Bi, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 228 Th, 230 Th, 232 Th, 234 U, 235 U, 237 Np, 238 U, 238 Pu, 239 Pu + 240 Pu, and 241 Am. The uncertainties for a number of the certified radionuclides are non-symmetrical and relatively large because of the non-normal distribution of reported values. NIST is continuing its efforts to provide the ocean studies community with additional natural matrix radionuclide SRMs. The freeze-dried shellfish flesh matrix has been prepared and recently sent to participating laboratories for analysis and we anticipate receiving radioanalytical results in 2000. The research and development work at NIST produce well characterized SRMs that provide the world's environment-studies community with an important foundation component for radionuclide metrology.