Authors:F. Gao, J. Bao, J. Xue, J. Huang, W. Huang, S. Wu, and Li-Fan Zhang
This study was designed to test the hypothesis that a medium-term simulated microgravity by tail-suspension (SUS) induces hypertrophic and atrophic changes in the common carotid artery and abdominal aorta with their innermost smooth muscle (SM) layers being most profoundly affected. The second purpose was to elucidate whether vascular local renin-angiotensin system (L-RAS) plays an important role in the differential remodeling of the two kinds of large arteries by examining the gene and protein expression of angiotensinogen (A
) and angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1R) and their localization in the vessel wall. The results showed that SUS induced an increase in the media thickness of the common carotid artery due to hypertrophy of the four SM layers and a decrease in the total cross-sectional area of the nine SM layers of the abdominal aorta without significant change in its media thickness. Irrespective of the nature of remodeling, the most prominent changes were in the innermost layers. Immunohistochemistry,
hybridization, Western blot, and real time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that SUS induced an up- and down-regulation in A
and AT1R expression in the common carotid artery and abdominal aorta, respectively. In conclusion, our findings have demonstrated some special features in the structural adaptation of large elastic arteries due to a medium-term simulated microgravity.
Authors:Y. Chou, J. Huang, J. Tseng, S. Cheng, and C. Shu
Organic peroxides have caused many serious explosions and fires that were promoted by thermal instability, chemical pollutants,
and even mechanical shock. Cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) has been employed in polymerization and for producing phenol and dicumyl
peroxide (DCPO). Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has been used to assess the thermal hazards associated with CHP contacting
sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Thermokinetic parameters, such as exothermic onset temperature (T0), peak temperature (Tmax), and enthalpy (ΔH) were obtained. Experimental data were obtained using DSC and curve fitting using thermal safety software (TSS) was employed
to obtain the kinetic parameters. Isothermal microcalorimetry (thermal activity monitor, TAM) was used to investigate the
thermal hazards associated with storing of CHP and CHP mixed with NaOH under isothermal conditions.
TAM showed that in the temperature range from 70 to 90°C an autocatalytic reaction occurs. This was apparent in the thermal
curves. Depending on the operating conditions, NaOH may be one of the chemicals or catalysts incompatible with CHP. When CHP
was mixed with NaOH, the T0 is lower and reactions become more complex than those associated with assessment of the decomposition of the pure peroxide.
The data by curve fitting indicated that the activation energy (Ea) for the induced decomposition is smaller than that for decomposition of CHP in the absence of hydroxide.
Authors:S. Lin, J. Tseng, Y. Lin, W. Huang, and C. Shu
The polymerization mechanisms of styrene and various derivatives by α-methylstyrene (AMS) and trans-β-methylstyrene (TBMS) were evaluated. Experiments were carried out for dimerization identification and thermal polymerization
estimation by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal activity monitor (TAM) and Fourier transform infrared absorption
spectrophotometer (FTIR). The results show that, under temperature ranges of 60–190 and 50–170°C, AMS and TBMS performed dimerization
by benzene ring and ethylene double bond, respectively. AMS and TBMS would form unsaturated dimers, saturated dimers and trimers,
etc., during the period of thermal polymerization. Through this study, one can estimate possible intermediates of the polymerization
process for the monomer of interest in the petrochemical industry.
Authors:M. Dong, J. Huang, H. Du, J. Li, S. Du, A. Luo, Y. Jiang, and C. Zhang
By substututing99Mo for the Mo in the reconstituted MoFe protein, the nuclear quadrupole interactions (NQI) of99Mo have been measured using the perturbed angular correlations (PAC). Two well-defined electric quadrupole interaction parameters have been observed. The configuration of the M-Center of the MoFe protein is identified by the quadrupole couplign constant
Q1(412(9)MHz) and the asymmetry parameter
1(0.49(5)). Other parameters, VQ2(1939(13)MHz) and
1(0.90(1)), may correspond to a deformation M—Center of MoFe protein.
Phenolic extract from banana peel was extracted with 95% ethanol and characterized by LC-TOF-MS/MS. Epicatechin, rutin, 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, myricetin, ferulic acid, chlorogenic acid, and gallic acid were detected in the extract. Cholate test was performed for the initial examination of the hypolipidemic effect of the dietary fibres. The dietary fibres prepared by sequential treatment with sulphuric acid then sodium hydroxide (SST) and sodium hydroxide treatment (SHT) had high water-holding capacities (7.48 and 6.91 g g−1) and swelling capacities (4.8 and 4.3 ml g−1). The dietary fibres prepared by sequential treatment with trypsin then sulphuric acid (TST) and sulphuric acid treatment (SAT) had high oil-holding capacities (5.52 and 5.10 g g−1) and enhanced capacities for sodium cholate adsorption. Results indicated the potentials of banana peel as functional ingredient in food applications.
Authors:S. Hu, Z. Chai, X. Mao, H. Oy, H. Wang, J. Zhang, and Y. Huang
Neutron activation analysis (NAA) and synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SRXRF) were used to study the loss
and recuperation of inorganic elements of osteoporotic rat bone and the effects of Zhugu Capsule. The results of the animal
experiments showed that there was greater loss of multiple elements in cancellous bone than in cortical bone that was difficult
to be improved. Yet in the mid-shaft femur, which is mainly consisted of cortical bone, the contents of multiple elements
were notably recuperated. Zhugu Capsule could increase the content of not only of Ca, but also Zn and Sr. Further, it could
also improve the distribution of these elements in femur.
Authors:J. Wang, L. Huang, H. Ren, Z. Sun, and Q. Guo
Soil seed banks can act as an important source in forest regeneration, and the information on the seed bank composition is vital for determining the resilience of plant communities under severe environments such as urban settings. In this study, we examined the seed bank density and functional composition, and their relationships with aboveground vegetation in three remnant evergreen broad-leaved forests, i.e., PuGang (PG), LuoGang (LG), and DaLingShan (DLS) under urbanization in Guangzhou, South China. In both years of our study (2010–2011), seed density and species richness for overall soil seed banks and each classified life forms (tree, shrub, herb and grass) significantly differed among the forests and were much higher in the PG forest. The prevailing life forms in the seed banks were herbs and grasses, and the proportion of tree species Importance Value index (IV) of the seed banks was low. We did not detect significant difference in the percentage of exotic species seeds in the seed banks among the forests. The proportion of species with animal dispersal mode was much higher in the DLS forest than in the PG and LG forests. The similarity in species composition between standing vegetation and seed banks was low with the lower value in the DLS forest than in PG and LG forest. Our findings suggest that the regeneration potential of the soil seed banks is limited for the remnant forests in urban areas. Therefore, greater proactive and enhanced conservation efforts are thus needed.
Authors:F. Zhang, W. Feng, J. Shi, M. Wang, Y. Huang, W. He, and Z. Chai
The damage in the pup rat brain with low-level mercury exposure, and the concentration variation of trace elements in the
rat hippocampus was determined by synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence technique (SRXRF). Meanwhile, the levels and activities
of glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and malondialdehyde (MDA)
in the hippocampus were also measured. The results showed that the low dose of inorganic mercury prenatal and postnatal exposure
could lead to the significant increase of both copper and zinc contents and remarkable decrease of iron content in pup rat
brain. Compared to the control group, the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as GSH-Px, SOD, the contents of GSH and MDA
in the pup rat hippocampus of mercury-exposed group fell down obviously.
Authors:F. Ahmadabadi, M. Saghebjoo, M. Hedayati, R. Hoshyar, and C.-J. Huang
This study was to investigate whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and saffron aqueous extract (SAE) would provide a synergistic effect to improve tumor volume reduction and also modulate pro- and anti-apoptotic protein expression in tumor tissue of 4T1 breast cancer-bearing mice. Female mice following induction of breast cancer through injection of 4T1 cell lines were randomly divided into four groups: (1) HIIT, (2) SAE, (3) HIIT+ SAE, and (4) control. The tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIIT, SAE, and HIIT+SAE groups than in the controls. The protein level of caspase-3 in the HIIT and the SAE groups was higher than in the control and the HIIT+SAE groups. The Bax protein level in the SAE group was higher than in the control. The HIIT+SAE group showed a lower level of Bax than the HIIT and the SAE groups. The protein level of Bcl-2 was higher in the HIIT+SAE vs. both the HIIT and the SAE groups. Finally, the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 was significantly higher in the HIIT and the SAE groups than in the HIIT+SAE and control groups. These findings indicate that a combination of HIIT and SAE interventions does not improve the apoptotic induction in tumor tissue, while both HIIT and SAE treatments may mediate apoptotic pathway as evinced by the elevated ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and caspase-3 levels during tumor progression in breast cancer-bearing mice.