Hedya nubiferana (Haworth) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a polyphagous pest damaging apple, pear, peach, plum and other related fruits. In tests conducted in Hungary, traps baited with a female-targeted lure [ethyl (E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester) + acetic acid; abbreviated later as PE+AA] caught comparable number of moths as pheromone baited traps. Traps with PE+AA lures caught (females and males together) on an average 30% of the catch in traps baited with the synthetic green budworm moth sex pheromone (catching all males). This suggested that the PE+AA lure had a trapping performance comparable with that of pheromone traps, which latter are in practical use by farmers today. The seasonal flight patterns recorded with the PE+AA baited traps were similar to those with the sex pheromone baited ones, with respect to detection of beginning of flight and quantitative trends of catches during the flight. Consequently, the PE+AA lure shows potential for future practical applications as a female-targeted lure for H. nubiferana.
Authors:J. K. Jósvai, S. Koczor, Cs. Szabóky, M. Ladányi and M. Tóth
The present research was undertaken to screen for field activity of ethyl-(E,Z)-2,4-decadienoate (pear ester, PE), acetic acid (AA) and the blend of this two components (PEAA) at locations, where high diversity of microlepidopteran species was presumed. By tendency of relative catches, microlepidopterans captured could be divided into two groups: in the first group the PEAA blend resulted in higher catches than single components (Hedya nubiferana, Ypsolopha scabrella and Notocelia trimaculana), while in the second group (Archips rosana, A. xylosteana, Ptycholoma lecheana and Tortrix viridana) only the presence of AA was responsible for attractivity.
In all species, both male and female specimens were caught. This result indicates a potential way to optimise female-targeted lures based on PEAA or AA for all these microlepidopterans that are all recorded as pests. On the other hand, the capture of the above moths in the traps raises the need for some taxonomic knowledge in evaluating captures in PEAA-baited traps currently use in agricultural practice for codling moth monitoring.
Authors:M. Tóth, P. Landolt, I. Szarukán, A. Nagy and J. K. Jósvai
The addition of synthetic eugenol and benzyl acetate to the known floral chemical
and moth attractant phenylacetaldehyde synergized attraction of the silver Y
moth Autographa gamma, an important noctuid pest. Traps baited
with the ternary blend caught 2 to 6 times more A. gamma moths
than traps baited with phenylac-etaldehyde alone. Both female and male moths
were attracted, supposedly in the natural sex ratio of the local population.
More A. gamma were caught when the blend was formulated in
dispenser types with higher release rates. Traps baited with the ternary lure in
polyethylene bag dispensers caught 20% to 34% as many moths as were caught in
traps baited with synthetic sex pheromone, suggesting that this improved
bisexual lure could be efficient enough to yield a new tool for detection and
monitoring of female and male A. gamma, for more reliable plant
The same ternary lure also improved trap catches of moths over phenylacetaldehyde
alone for the plusiinae pests MacDunnoughia confusa (in Europe)
and Autographa californica (in North America) and for the
Noctuinae cutworm Xestia c-nigrum (in North America).
Authors:K. Hári, B. Pénzes, J. Jósvai, I. Holb, I. Szarukán, I. Szólláth, I. Vitányi, S. Koczor, M. Ladányi and M. Tóth
Traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid were capable of monitoring the codling moth although caught fewer specimens than pheromone baited traps. The general flight patterns recorded in pear ester + acetic acid baited traps resembled closely those recorded with pheromone traps. The only aspect in which pear ester + acetic acid baited traps lagged behind was early detection of first moth specimens occurring in the season. The great advantage of traps with pear ester + acetic acid over pheromone traps was that the former caught females in a high percentage. Further studies are needed to determine whether the sex ratio recorded in captures resembles reliably the natural sex ratio of the given population, or it is distorted. It appears that traps baited with pear ester + acetic acid present a useful alternative for monitoring codling moth especially in mating disruption treated orchards where pheromone traps do not work, or in any other situations where for any reason the capture of female codling moths is sought for. The lower efficiency of the pear ester + acetic acid bait can easily be overcome by applying more traps for monitoring at a given site.
Authors:Sz. Szanyi, I. Szarukán, A. Nagy, J. Jósvai, Z. Imrei, Z. Varga and M. Tóth
The performance of a semisynthetic bisexual lure (SBL, containing isoamyl alcohol, acetic acid and red wine) previously found attractive for a number of noctuids was compared with that of the respective synthetic sex attractants of Orthosia cerasi (=stabilis), O. cruda, O. gothica, O. incerta, Anorthoa munda and Conistra vaccini. The respective sex attractants performed significantly better in the Orthosia spp. than the SBL lure, which, although regularly catching low numbers of both females and males, did not differ significantly from zero catch in unbaited control traps. On the other hand, the SBL lure performed as well as the sex attractant in C. vaccini. Sizeable catches of C. rubiginea, C. rubiginosa and C. erythrocephala were also recorded in traps with the SBL lure. The SBL lure can prove to be a useful tool in ecological and faunistical studies of Conistra and related hibernating Xylenini species.
Authors:M. Tóth, J. Jósvai, K. Hári, B. Pénzes, Zs. Vuity, I. Holb, I. Szarukán, Zs. Kecskés, I. Dorgán-Zsuga, S. Koczor and E. Voigt
For acceptable capture efficiency it was necessary to add acetic acid to pear ester for successful trapping of codling moth populations in Hungary. The activity of pear ester on its own was very weak and unsatisfactory. Pear ester+acetic acid baited traps caught on an average 25% (mean of 6 tests) of the catch in pheromone traps. Traps with pear ester+acetic acid were clearly advantageous as compared to pheromone traps in that they caught not only males but also females (both virgins and mated) in a high percentage. Traps baited with pear ester+acetic acid clearly outperformed high-load pheromone lures in orchards with mating disruption and should be the right choice for the grower for sampling populations of codling moth in a mating disruption situation. In orchards with no mating disruption the relative inefficiency of pear ester+acetic acid baited traps as compared to pheromone traps can easily be overcome by applying more traps than usual. Thus the overall codling moth numbers caught will become higher and would make any conclusions drawn more reliable. Traps baited with pear ester+acetic acid always caught more when set at the highest branches (3.0–3.5 m) than when set lower (1.5–1.8 m) on trees.
Authors:M. Tóth, A. Nagy, I. Szarukán, K. Ary, A. Cserenyec, B. Fenyődi, D. Gombás, T. Lajkó, L. Merva, J. Szabó, P. Winkler and J. K. Jósvai
The addition of synthetic (E)-anethol to the known attractant phenylacetaldehyde synergized attraction of the cotton bollworm Helicoverpa armigera, the blend invariably catching 4 to 6 times more than phenylacetaldehyde on its own. Highest catches were recorded by the 1:1-3:1 blends. The addition of salicyl aldehyde, ±linalool, (R)-(+)-limonene, 2-methoxybenzyl alcohol and 4-methoxybenzyl alcohol (compounds described earlier in the literature as co-attractants for H. armigera), increased catches when added to phenylacetaldehyde. However, the addition of these compounds did not increase catches of the (E)-anethol+pheny- lacetaldehyde blend. When directly compared with performance of the synthetic pheromone, the (E)-anethol +phenylacetaldehyde blend caught an average of 27% of the catch in pheromone baited traps. On an average 79% of moths caught in traps with the (E)-anethol+phenylacetaldehyde blend were females, while traps with pheromone caught only males. The (E)-anethol+phenylacetaldehyde blend described in this study may form the basis for the development of an efficient bisexual lure for H. armigera AFTER further optimization.