Authors:J. Tarek-Tilistyák, M. Juhász-Román, J. Jekő, and E. Máthé
We evaluated the microbiological safety, the short-term storability, and the macronutrients of oil seed cake (OSC) obtained from walnut (WnC), linseed (LC), and sunflower seed with hull (SC). The OSCs had 3.6–5.8% moisture content, 0.50–0.60 water activity (aw), 29.9–39.4% protein, 15.5–23.6% fat, and 36.6–48.0% dietary fibre content. The grinded OSCs could be stored in opaque plastic bags for 4 months at temperatures of 4 °C, 14 °C, and 25 °C. Total colony count of mesophilic microorganisms depending on oxygen demand and spore-forming ability, and faecal indicator microorganisms were determined during a 4-month storage term at 4 °C, 14 °C, and 25 °C using traditional culturing methods. The OSCs were free from sulphite-reducing Clostridia and coliforms, including Escherichia coli. Data were analyzed statistically by multifactor analysis of variance. Ascending order of the average contamination of the three products (log10 CFU g−1) was aerobic sporogenic bacteria (2.39), fungal count (2.51), total aerobic microbe count (3.00), anerobic sporogenic bacteria (3.75), and total anaerobic microbe count (4.23). As for the average microbial count, WnC was the least (2.73 log10 CFU g−1) and LC was the highest (3.53 log10 CFU g−1) contaminated material. Regarding the variation of microbial contamination during storage, temperature was indifferent (P=0.191), while storage time (P=0.0033) and the product type were influential (P=0.000).
Authors:J. Tarek-Tilistyák, J. Agócs, M. Lukács, M. Dobró-Tóth, M. Juhász-Román, Z. Dinya, J. Jekő, and E. Máthé
The nutritive value, the microbiological safety of oilseed cake (OSC) obtained from naked pumpkin seed (PuC), sunflower seed (SC), yellow linseed (LC), and walnut (WnC), and their impact on wheat flour (WF) dough and bread sensory characteristics at 5% and 10% addition ratio were investigated. The OSCs had high protein (34–50%), fat (8–15%), total dietary fibre (23–36%) content and high energy value (383–444 kcal/100 g)). The OSC samples with a minimal exception fulfilled the requirements of feed legislation in force. An increased water absorption, dough development time, and reduced elasticity were observed probably due to the enhanced fiber and protein content. Dough stability increased with WnC, and decreased with PuC or SC addition. Enrichment provided the appearance of a brown bread for WnC, of a half-brown bread for LC. PuC gave an unusual look. The appearance of OSC fortified bread similar to daily bread, was an advantage resulting the 1st rank for 10% WnC bread and the 2nd one for 10% LC bread (P=0.05). The studied OSCs are suitable for food enrichment, however, in case of PuC and SC fortified flour blends, hydrocolloid application is recommended. Our data suggest that the newly developed fortified breads could be a valuable source for healthy nutrition.