Authors:Y. Li, Z. Yingyuan, L. Yonghui, J. Jing, and W. Xiaoqing
The enthalpies of mixing of six kinds of amino acid (glycine, L-alanine, L-valine, L-serine, L-threonine, and L-proline) with glycerol in aqueous solutions and the enthalpies of diluting of amino acid and glycerol aqueous solutions have been determined by flow microcalorimetry at 298.15 K. Employing McMillan–Mayer theory, the enthalpies of mixing and diluting have been used to calculate heterogeneous enthalpic pairwise interaction coefficients (hxy) between amino acids and glycerol in aqueous solutions. Combining hxy values of amino acids with glycol in the previous study, the variations of the hxy values between amino acids and glycerol have been interpreted from the point of view of solute–solute interactions.
Authors:Weijia Li, R. Skinner, K. Megna, Jing Chen, S. Perera, J. Murimboh, E. Waller, L. Erhardt, and R. Cornett
Inhalation is one of the most important routes for aerosol particles of uranium compounds to enter the body. The main step
for uranium to be available for blood circulation and for interaction with bio-molecules is the dissolution of the particles.
Particle size effects on dissolution of uranium dioxide and uranium ore were studied in simulated lung fluid using the “batch/filter”
method. Samples were fractionated to ten size ranges from <0.43 μm to >10 μm by cascade impaction prior to dissolution experiments.
Dependence of dissolution kinetics on particle size and on the amount of uranium trioxide contained in the particles was observed.
Authors:Elizabeth C. Cropper, C. G. Evans, J. Jing, A. Klein, A. Proekt, A. Romero, and S. C. Rosen
Although feeding in Aplysia is mediated by a central pattern generator (CPG), the activity of this CPG is modified by afferent input. To determine how afferent activity produces the widespread changes in motor programs that are necessary if behavior is to be modified, we have studied two classes of feeding sensory neurons. We have shown that afferent-induced changes in activity are widespread because sensory neurons make a number of synaptic connections. For example, sensory neurons make monosynaptic excitatory connections with feeding motor neurons. Sensori-motor transmission is, however, regulated so that changes in the periphery do not disrupt ongoing activity. This results from the fact that sensory neurons are also electrically coupled to feeding interneurons. During motor programs sensory neurons are, therefore, rhythmically depolarized via central input. These changes in membrane potential profoundly affect sensori-motor transmission. For example, changes in membrane potential alter spike propagation in sensory neurons so that spikes are only actively transmitted to particular output regions when it is behaviorally appropriate. To summarize, afferent activity alters motor output because sensory neurons make direct contact with motor neurons. Sensori-motor transmission is, however, centrally regulated so that changes in the periphery alter motor programs in a phase-dependent manner.
Authors:Y.P. Jing, D.T. Liu, X.R. Yu, F. Xiong, D.L. Li, Y.K. Zheng, Y.F. Hao, Y.J. Gu, and Z. Wang
The objective of the present study was to understand the developmental regularity of wheat endosperm cells at different Days After Pollination (DAP) using microscopic and histochemical methods. Resin semi-thin sections of the endosperm and the enzymatically dissociated Starchy Endosperm Cells (SECs) were observed under a light microscope. The results showed that: (1) SECs were irregular-shaped and had two types of starch granules: large oval-shaped A-type starch granules and small spherical B-type starch granules. (2) The growth shape of SECs was referred to as S-curve and the fastest cell growth period was at 16–24 DAP. (3) The largest increase and growth of A-type starch granules were mainly at 4–16 DAP. B-type starch granules increased rapidly after 16 DAP and made up over 90% of the total starch granules in SEC during the late stage of endosperm development. (4) The nuclei of SEC deformed and degenerated during the middle and late stages of endosperm development and eventually disappeared. However, starch granules still increased and grew after the cell nuclei had degenerated. The investigations showed the development regularity of starch endosperm cells and starch granules, thereby improving the understanding of wheat endosperm development.
Authors:Jing Shi, Mark van der Maas, Nigel E. Turner, and Marc N. Potenza
As new types of problematic behaviors and new forms of online risk-taking emerge, forming collaborative relationships while understanding complexities of motivations may help to promote harm reduction and intervention. While it may be too early to form a stakeholder framework without first conceptually understanding the problematic behaviors involved, we attempt to build upon a proposed multidisciplinary stakeholder framework to minimize harms for problematic risk-taking involving emerging technologies. We propose an expansion of roles for individual stakeholders and an expansion of proposed roles for family stakeholders to include partner/spouses, others living in the household, and/or those with close relationships with individuals who are experiencing problems. Empowering individuals who use emerging technologies through participatory action research and knowledge translation/dissemination may lead to improvements in the quality of research and a greater impact on policy and practice. Also, we discuss benefits of industry self-regulation and collaboration on data-sharing practices. We recommend approaches to promote global collaboration with a larger group of relevant stakeholders (including but not limited to individual consumers of technology, families, communities, treatment and welfare providers, researchers, industries, and governments) to address protection of vulnerable populations and reduce harms for users of rapidly advancing technologies.
Authors:Antonius J. van Rooij, Christopher J. Ferguson, Michelle Colder Carras, Daniel Kardefelt-Winther, Jing Shi, Espen Aarseth, Anthony M. Bean, Karin Helmersson Bergmark, Anne Brus, Mark Coulson, Jory Deleuze, Pravin Dullur, Elza Dunkels, Johan Edman, Malte Elson, Peter J. Etchells, Anne Fiskaali, Isabela Granic, Jeroen Jansz, Faltin Karlsen, Linda K. Kaye, Bonnie Kirsh, Andreas Lieberoth, Patrick Markey, Kathryn L. Mills, Rune Kristian Lundedal Nielsen, Amy Orben, Arne Poulsen, Nicole Prause, Patrick Prax, Thorsten Quandt, Adriano Schimmenti, Vladan Starcevic, Gabrielle Stutman, Nigel E. Turner, Jan van Looy, and Andrew K. Przybylski
We greatly appreciate the care and thought that is evident in the 10 commentaries that discuss our debate paper, the majority of which argued in favor of a formalized ICD-11 gaming disorder. We agree that there are some people whose play of video games is related to life problems. We believe that understanding this population and the nature and severity of the problems they experience should be a focus area for future research. However, moving from research construct to formal disorder requires a much stronger evidence base than we currently have. The burden of evidence and the clinical utility should be extremely high, because there is a genuine risk of abuse of diagnoses. We provide suggestions about the level of evidence that might be required: transparent and preregistered studies, a better demarcation of the subject area that includes a rationale for focusing on gaming particularly versus a more general behavioral addictions concept, the exploration of non-addiction approaches, and the unbiased exploration of clinical approaches that treat potentially underlying issues, such as depressive mood or social anxiety first. We acknowledge there could be benefits to formalizing gaming disorder, many of which were highlighted by colleagues in their commentaries, but we think they do not yet outweigh the wider societal and public health risks involved. Given the gravity of diagnostic classification and its wider societal impact, we urge our colleagues at the WHO to err on the side of caution for now and postpone the formalization.