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  • Author or Editor: J. Joly x
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Abstract  

This work presents the modelling of heat transfer in a polymer sample submitted to a microwave field in the quartz column of a dilatometer surrounded by vacuum to avoid convection. The temperature rise is studied in transient state by the finite element method. It is assumed that a uniform and constant heat production is maintained in the entire volume of the sample. It is shown that it is possible to design the set composed of the sample and of the column to achieve a nearly uniform temperature in the whole volume of the sample while its temperature is raised from 20 to 250°C at a heating rate of 5 deg·min−1.

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For liquid crystals exhibiting several fluid or viscous phases, no thermodilatometric method exists for small samples. By simply adding to the basic equipment for the investigation of liquid crystals a Michelson interferometer objective and a photomultiplier, dilatometric studies can be performed from photometric measurements on little droplets of fluid materials. The volume of the samples is about 0.1 cubic millimeter. Introducing the notion of useful radius, data for the isobaric thermal expansion coefficient and volume changes at the phase transitions are deduced from experiments. Efficiency and sensitivity tests are performed on two well known fluid compounds: mercury and silicone oil. The method is then applied to the determination of the thermodilatometric data of two pure liquid crystal compounds — pentyl et octyl cyano biphenyles — and of a commercial nematic liquid crystal mixture.

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Liquid crystals exhibit successively several fluids and/or viscous phases and therefore microscopical methods play an important role for their characterization. No really efficient routine dilatometric method exist for rather small samples. By simple addition of a Michelson's interferometer objective and a photo-multiplier to the basic equipment for the investigation of liquid crystals — i.e. a polarizing microscope associated to a heating and cooling stage — dilatometric investigations as well as studies of phase transitions are getting accessible. In fact, when a droplet of liquid crystal, set up in a spherical stamp, is lightened through the interferometer with a quasi monochromatic source, equal thickness circular fringes are observable on the surface of the sample. A thermal expansion of the droplet leads to displacements of these fringes. The principle for the measurement of the volume changes consists by recording, versus the temperature, the variations of the light intensity of the central fringe. The volume of the sample, at given temperatures, is determined from photomicrographs of the whole interference feature. This volume is lower than 0.1 mm3. Experiments on the pure compound octyl-cyanobiphenyl show that the method is convenient for the detection of the phase transition, even if the transformation is weakly first order asS A -N. Tested with a commercial ternary mixture the expansivity of phases and the transitions volumes changes can be deduced from experiments.

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Abstract  

Ionizing radiation, such as gamma-rays and electron-beams, has been applied to modify toxicity of refractory pollutants and industrial wastewaters, however, very few studies reported the cause of toxicity changes by radiation treatment. In this work, degradation of phenol and chlorophenols (5·10−4M) by gamma-ray treatment and consequent toxicity changes were evaluated. Toxicity of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) was gradually decreased with increasing absorbed dose of gamma-radiation. However, in the case of phenol and monochlorophenols (2-, 3-, and 4-CPs), toxicity was dramatically increased particularly, for a dose of as low as 1 kGy. Hydroquinone, benzoquinone, catechol, chlorohydroquinone, and 4-chlorocatechol were identified to be main by-products of gamma-ray treatment. From the solid phase extraction (SPE) fractionation study, toxicity-causing by-products were found to be hydroquinone, benzoquinone, chlorohydroquinone, and/or 4-chlorocatechol.

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Abstract  

Calorimetry may be considered like a technique of nuclear measurement. Associated with gammametry, it can insure the management of nuclear material emitting α, β and γ rays. The gamma spectrometer using a high purety germanium detector can describe the isotopic composition of the sample and the differential calorimeter with thermopile measure the equivalent heating from the nuclear properties of these isotopes.

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Abstract  

Radiation treatment with gamma-rays was used to improve the biodegradability of EDTA that is known to be a non-biodegradable substance. The effect of metal ions and catalysts on the treatment of EDTA was studied first. The removal of EDTA was definitely decreased in the presence of metal ions such as Cr(III), Cd(II), Pb(II) and Cu(II) at doses greater than 3 kGy. The addition of a TiO2

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Abstract  

In order to reduce the toxicity of both raw wastewater and effluent from a rubber products factory, γ-ray treatment was applied at different dose levels. The γ-ray treatment did not completely removed the toxicity, suggesting that there were major toxicants other than destroyable organic compounds. Toxicity identification evaluation (TIE phase 1) was conducted to characterize major toxicants using Daphnia magna. The suspected toxicants in both raw wastewater and effluent were mostly filterable materials and EDTA chelatable metals and, to some degree, non-polar organic compounds. Anion-exchange removable compounds, most likely organics, were found only in raw wastewater. Metal analyses showed that zinc and copper concentrations were above levels causing toxicity to D. magna. After 20 kGy γ-ray treatment of raw wastewater, filtrations both at pH 3 and at the initial pH (pH 3.6) showed dramatic change (9 to 77% and 29 to 85%, respectively) in toxicity reduction, suggesting the formation of toxic filterable materials which are stable even at acidic conditions. Unlike raw wastewater, there was no significant change in TIE results after γ-ray treatment at 20 kGy for rubber effluent.

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Summary  

In order to evaluate the use of gamma-ray treatment as a pretreatment to conventional biological methods, the effects of gamma-irradiation on biodegradability (BOD5/COD) of textile and pulp wastewaters were investigated. For all wastewaters studied in this work, the efficiency of treatment based on TOC removal was insignificant even at an absorbed dose of 20 kGy. However, the change of biodegradability was noticeable and largely dependent on the chemical property of wastewaters and the absorbed dose of gamma-rays. For textile wastewaters, gamma-ray treatment increased the biodegradability of desizing effluent due to degradation of polymeric sizing agents such as polyvinyl alcohol. Interestingly, the weight-loss showed the highest value of 0.97 at a relatively low dose of 1 kGy. This may be caused by the degradation of less biodegradable ethylene glycol prior to terephthalic acid decomposition. For pulp wastewater, the gamma-ray treatment did not improve the biodegradability of cooking and bleaching of C/D effluents. However, the biodegradability of bleaching E1 and final effluents was abruptly increased up to 5 kGy then slowly decreased as the absorbed dose was increased. The initial increase of biodegradability may be induced by the decomposition of refractory organic compounds such as chlorophenols, which are known to be the main components of bleaching C/D and final effluents.

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