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Purpose

In the past decade, novel psychoactive substances (NPSs) gained a significant role on the contemporary drug scene. Synthetic cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids are the most common NPSs both in Hungary and worldwide. This study aims to provide a literature review on the Hungarian characteristics related to the use of these NPSs.

Materials and methods

Available literature regarding synthetic cathinone and cannabinoid use in Hungary was overviewed and structured into (a) epidemiological studies, (b) studies on the subjective and somatic effects, and (c) studies on toxicity and adverse consequences. Published papers between 2007 and 2017 were identified using PubMed and MATARKA search engines.

Results

One hundred twenty-six papers were identified and after exclusion, 54 papers remained for in-depth analysis. Most of the reviewed studies were providing epidemiological information regarding the NPSs of our interest. Hungarian prevalence rates were not higher than the European averages. Identified risks of these NPSs consisted of drug-induced psychosis, further severe psychiatric symptoms, and fatal overdose. Injecting of cathinones was also a commonly reported phenomenon, mostly among clients of needle-exchange programs.

Conclusion

Based on the reviewed body of research, necessary information is available to plan effective prevention and intervention programs and establishes specific therapeutic guidelines for the treatment of NPS users.

Open access

In the present work, bio and conventional forms of spice red pepper were analysed using various high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) systems for their carotenoid, tocopherol and vitamin C contents. The carotenoid pigment was fractionated into free xanthophylls, monoesters, carotenes and diesters with newly developed reversed phase HPLC, while a -, b - and g -isomers of vitamin E were separated by normal phase chromatography. Ion-pair chromatography on a C-18 column provided good separation and quantification of vitamin C. The peppers included new resistant varieties and hybrids that are essential for bio-production. It was found that crossing new disease-resistant varieties such as Kaldom and Kalorez with susceptible ones such as Rubin and SZ-20 produced resistant hybrids that contained higher levels of quality components compared to the parents, particularly when grown and cultivated under organic farming conditions.

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