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  • Author or Editor: J. Karger-Kocsis x
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Abstract  

The crystallisation behaviour of in situ polymerised cyclic butylene terephthalates (pCBT) and poly(butylene terephthalate)s (PBT) were studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) both under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The crystallisation was analysed by adopting the Avrami, Ozawa and Kissinger methods for the isothermal and non-isothermal crystallisations, respectively. An Avrami exponent n between 2 and 3 was found for the pCBTs whereas the exponent ranged between 3 and 4 for the PBTs. The Ozawa exponent m varied for all materials between 2 and 3. Differences in the crystallisation kinetics were also reflected in the related activation energy data.

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Abstract  

The static loading-induced stress oscillation (SO) in syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP) was studied by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC). Samples were taken from the initial necked, premature and mature SO oscillation ranges, respectively, and the related calorimetric responses were compared to those of the bulk material. It was established that necking caused some decrease in the crystallinity. In addition, necking resulted in cold crystallization that was assigned to a polymorphic transition (from all-trans to helical conformation) based on literature results. The TMDSC response was practically the same for necked samples with and without SO. A model was proposed to explain SO. The model assumes the presence of a network (similar to that of semicrystalline thermoplastic elastomers), which is highly stretchable and fails by sudden voiding at the intersections of shear micro bands intermittently.

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Abstract  

The mechanical strain-induced βα-transition of a β-phase isotactic polypropylene (β-iPP) was studied by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). Samples were taken after tensile fracture of a double notched specimen from its process and plastic zones, respectively, and the related calorimetric response was compared to that of the bulk material. In contrast to conventional DSC results, it was found that the βα-transformation was not completed in the process zone. Furthermore, the melting of the α-iPP showed both non-reversing and reversing characteristics, whereas the melting of the β-phase proved to be a reversing process. Therefore, it was recommended to consider the conversion grade of the βα-transformation by the relative change in the melt flux of the reversing β-melting peak.

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Both the activated and the non-activated alkaline polymerization ofε-caprolactam were studied by DSC. In the latter case, a curve-resolving method was applied to separate the superimposed polymerization and crystallization processes. The counter-ion effect was taken into account in the complexing of the initiator cations by crown compounds.

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Abstract  

The polymerization of a cyclic butylene terephthalate (CBT) oligomer was studied as a function of temperature (T=200 and 260C, respectively) by modulated DSC (MDSC). The first heating was followed by cooling after various holding times (5, 15 and 30 min) prior to the second heating which ended always at T=260C. This allowed us to study the crystallization and melting behavior of the resulting polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), as well. In contrary to the usual belief, the CBT polymerization is exothermic and the related process is superimposed to that of the CBT melting. The melting behavior of the PBT was affected by the polymerization mode (performed below or above the melting temperature of the PBT product) of the CBT. Annealing above the melting temperature of PBT yielded a product featuring double melting. This was attributed to the presence of crystallites with different degrees of perfection. The crystals perfection which occurred via recrystallization/remelting was manifested by a pronounced exothermic peak in the non-reversing trace.

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Abstract  

The tensile loading-induced necking in notched specimens of an amorphous copolyester (aCOP) was studied by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). It was shown that necking occurred by cold drawing since the enthalpy of cold crystallization and that of the subsequent melting agreed fairly with each other. Increasing deformation in the necking zone and increasing deformation rate of the specimens shifted the onset of cold crystallization toward lower temperatures and yielded a slightly higher glass transition temperature (Tg). This was attributed to the molecular orientation caused by mechanical loading. The finding that the melting contained a non-reversing part was considered as appearance of possible microcrystallinity. The Tg range was strongly influenced by the deformation rate and reflects the thermomechanical history of the samples accordingly.

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Abstract  

The toughness of amorphous copolyester sheets was assessed by the essential work of fracture (EWF) concept. While the yielding-related work of fracture terms did not change significantly, the necking-related parameters strongly decreased with decreasing entanglement density of the copolyesters having different amounts of cyclohexylenedimethylene (CHDM) units in their backbones. Furthermore, copolyesters with high CHDM content and thus less entanglement density showed full recovery of the necked region beyond the glass transition temperature, i.e. the ‘plastic’ zone in the related specimens formed by cold drawing and not by true plastic deformation. By contrast, the copolyester with negligible amount of CHDM did not show this shape recovery. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) revealed that the necking in the latter system was accompanied by strain-induced crystallization. The superior work hardening in the necking stage of the respective poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) specimens can thus be ascribed to stretching of the entanglement network with superimposed crystallization.

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