Authors:Á. Adamicza, J. Kaszaki, M. Boros and Zoltán Hantos
During intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion, endotoxin can be translocated. Pretreatment with sublethal doses of endotoxin develops tolerance to ischaemia-reperfusion in different organs; however, the tolerance to intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion in the lung has rarely been investigated. Our aim was to study the role of endotoxin pretreatment in the mechanical responses and inflammatory activation induced by intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion in the lung. Wistar rats were preconditioned with a sublethal dose of endotoxin on day −3 or −1. On day 0, anesthetized, paralyzed and mechanically ventilated rats were subjected to a 60-min occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery and a subsequent 240-min reperfusion. The low-frequency forced oscillation technique was employed to characterize the separate mechanical responses of the airways and respiratory tissues. Intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion caused a significant decrease in airway resistance and increases in tissue resistance and elastance, nitric oxide synthase and myeloperoxidase activities. Pretreatment with endotoxin modified both the pulmonary mechanical responses and the inflammatory markers in the lung during intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion. We conclude that endotoxin or the endotoxin-induced processes (and humoral mediators) have significant roles in the pathomechanism of the remote pulmonary effect of intestinal ischaemia-reperfusion.
Authors:G. Molnár, E. Csonka, A. Vass, Mihály Boros and J. Kaszaki
Hypertonic small-volume resuscitation transiently restores the cardiovascular function during various circulatory disturbances. Nitric oxide (NO) is an important mediator of flow-induced peripheral and central hemodynamic changes, and therefore, we hypothesized that a decreased endogenous NO production could influence the consequences and the effectiveness of hypertonic fluid therapy. The main goal of this study was to outline and compare the circulatory effects small volume hypertonic saline-dextran (HSD, 7.5% NaCl-10% dextran; 4 ml/kg iv) infusion with (n=7) or without (n=7) artificially diminished NO production in normovolemic anesthetized dogs. HSD administration significantly increased cardiac index (CI), coronary flow (CF) and myocardial contractility, and elevated plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels. However, the late (2 h) postinfusion period was characterized by significantly decreased myocardial NO synthase (NOS) and enhanced myeloperoxidase activities. Pre-treatment with the non-selective NOS inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine (NNA, 4 mg/kg) immediately increased cardiac contractility, and the HSD-induced CI and CF elevations and the positive inotropy were absent. Additionally, plasma ET-1 levels increased and NOx levels were significantly decreased. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that HSD infusion leads to preponderant vasoconstriction when endogenous NO synthesis is diminished, and this could explain the loss of effectiveness of HSD resuscitation in NO-deficient states.
Authors:E. Eszlári, M. Czóbel, G. Molnár, G. Bogáts, J. Kaszaki, S. Nagy and M. Boros
The aim of this study was to outline the consequences of a hypertonic saline-dextran-40 (HSD) infusion-induced peripheral flow stimulus on the ventricular function in closed-chest, pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. We hypothesized that HSD-induced elevation in endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) release can have a role in myocardial contractile responses; and that cardiac mast cells (MC) degranulation may be involved in this process. The consequences of disodium cromoglycate (a MC stabilizer) or ETR-p1/fl peptide (an endothelin-A receptor antagonist) treatment were evaluated. A 4 ml/kg iv HSD40 infusion significantly increased cardiac index and myocardial contractility, and resulted in a decreased peripheral resistance. The postinfusion period was characterized by significant plasma NO and ET-1 elevations, these hemodynamic and biochemical changes being accompanied by a decreased myocardial ET-1 content, NO synthase activity and enhanced myocardial MC degranulation. Disodium cromoglycate treatment inhibited the HSD40-induced elevations in myocardial contractility and MC degranulation, and similar hemodynamic changes were noted after treatment with ETR-p1/fl peptide, together with a normalized myocardial myocardial ET-1 content, NO synthesis and a significant reduction in MC degranulation. These results indicate that peripheral NO and ET-1 release modulates the cardiac contractility through myocardial ET-A receptor activation and MC degranulation.