Thermal behaviour of a number of organomercury(II) complexes of the type, p-XC6H4HgCl(L1) (I), p-XC6H4HgCl3(L2) (II), p-XC6H4HgL3 (III) and p-XC6H4HgL4 (IV) [L1=isoniazid, L2=theobromine, L3=phenyldithiocarbamate, L4=p-nitrophenyldithiocarbamate; X=Me, MeO, NO2] has been investigated. From TG curves, the order and activation energy of the thermal decomposition reaction have been elucidated. The variation of the activation energy has been correlated with the nature of the substituent on the phenyl ring. The heat of reaction has been elucidated from DSC or DTA studies. The fragmentation pattern has been analysed on the basis of mass spectra.
Corn starch nanoparticles (SNPs) were prepared by ultrasonication of starch for 40 min at an amplitude of 40%, which modified some properties of starch so that it could be used as a functional ingredient in food products. The cereal SNPs were characterized on the basis of their morphology, particle size, crystallinity, pasting and functional properties. The SNPs were globular in shape as revealed by TEM. There was a decrease in the crystallanity of SNPs, whereas the functional properties were enhanced in SNPs as compared to raw starch. SNPs had a less paste viscosity as compared to raw starch. Salad dressing was prepared by using SNPs as a fat replacer. The prepared salad dressing was examined for colour, viscosity, and sensory attributes. Overall 60% of fat was replaced using corn SNPs without compromising its quality characteristics.
Six isomeric dimethyl anilinium bromides (DMABr) have been prepared and characterized by elemental and spectroscopic studies.
Thermal decomposition of these salts has been studied by TG and simultaneous TG-DTA techniques. Kinetic parameters have been
evaluated from isothermal TG data using contracting area and contracting cube equations. The decomposition pathways have also
been suggested which involves simultaneous sublimation (at lower temperature) and dissociative vaporization/decomposition
(at higher temperature).
Authors:G. Singh, I. Kapoor, J. Srivastava and J. Kaur
Three dimethylanilinium sulfates (DMAS) have been prepared and characterised by elemental and spectral studies. Thermal decomposition of these salts has been studied by TG and simultaneous TG-DTG technique and kinetic parameters were evaluated from both dynamic and isothermal TG data using mechanism based kinetic equations. The thermal decomposition pathways have also been suggested and it has been found that DMAS salts give dimethyl aminobenzenesulfonic acids (DMABSA) via solid state reaction. The primary step in the thermal decomposition involves proton transfer followed by sulfonation.
Management practices need to be developed for successful cultivation of good quality aerobic basmati rice. Field experiments were conducted at Ludhiana, India during the summer seasons of 2011 and 2012 to ascertain the optimum irrigation schedule and dose and timings of nitrogen application to direct seeded basmati rice cultivar Pusa Basmati 1121. Three irrigation schedules (irrigations at 30, 50 and 70 mm CPE), three nitrogen levels (40, 60 and 80 kg N ha–1) and two modules of nitrogen splits (3 splits, i.e. application at 3, 6 and 9 weeks after sowing and 4 splits, i.e. application at 0, 3, 6 and 9 weeks after sowing) were tested in randomized block design with four replications on a loamy sand soil. The maximum grain yield, protein content, brown, milled and head rice recovery were obtained with irrigations at 30 mm CPE and these were significantly better than 50 and 70 mm CPE irrigation schedules. Among nitrogen levels, the significant increase in grain yield as well as quality parameters, viz. protein content, brown, milled and head rice recovery was recorded only up to a nitrogen dose of 60 kg ha–1. In Indian Punjab, good quality direct seeded basmati rice can be produced by following the irrigation schedule of 30 mm CPE and with the application of 60 kg N ha–1 applied in 3 splits (3, 6 and 9 weeks after sowing).
Authors:B. Randhawa, K. Sweety, Manpreet Kaur and J. Greneche
Thermal analysis of some transition metal ferrimaleate precursors, M3[Fe(mal)3]2·xH2O (M=Mn, Co, Ni, Cu) has been studied in static air atmosphere from ambient to 600°C. Various physico-chemical techniques, i.e. TG, DTG, DTA, XRD, IR, Mössbauer spectrometry, have been employed to characterize both the intermediates and final products. After dehydration the anhydrous precursors undergo decomposition to yield an iron(II) intermediate, M[FeII(mal)2] (M=Mn, Co, Ni, Cu) in the temperature range 160-275°C. A subsequent oxidative decomposition of iron(II) species leads to the formation of -Fe2O3 and MO in the successive stages. Finally a solid-state reaction occurs between the oxides above 400°C resulting in the formation of transition metal ferrites, MFe2O4. The ferrites have been obtained at much lower temperature and in less time than in the conventional ceramic method.
Authors:B. Kumar, K.S. Hooda, R. Gogoi, V. Kumar, S. Kumar, A. Abhishek, P. Bhati, J.C. Sekhar, K.R. Yathish, V. Singh, A. Das, G. Mukri, E. Varghese, H. Kaur, V. Malik and O.P. Yadav
Maydis leaf blight (MLB), a serious foliar fungal disease of maize, may cause up to 40% losses in yield. The present studies were undertaken to identify the stable sources of MLB resistance, its inheritance study, and testing of MLB resistance linked markers from diverse background in the Indian adapted tropical maize genotypes. A set of 112 inbred lines were screened under artificially created epiphytotics conditions at three hotspot locations. Analysis across multi-locations revealed significant effects of genotypes and environments, and non-significant effects due to genotypes × environment interaction on disease incidence. A total of 25 inbred lines with stable resistance were identified across multi-locations. Inheritance of resistance was studied in six F1s and two F2s of resistant and susceptible parents. The null hypothesis of segregation of resistance and susceptible for mono and digenic ratios in two F2 populations was rejected by Chi-square test. The non-significant differences among the reciprocal crosses depicted the complete control of nuclear genome for MLB resistance. Partial dominance in F1s and normal distribution pattern in F2s of resistant and susceptible parents suggested polygenic nature of MLB resistance. Correlation studies in F2 populations exhibited significant negative correlation between disease score and days to flowering. Five simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers, found associated to MLB resistance in different studies were unable to differentiate amongst MLB resistance and susceptible parents in our study. This emphasizes the need of fine mapping for MLB resistance in Indian germplasm. The identified stable sources of resistance and information on inheritance study can be used further in strengthening of resistance breeding against MLB.