Both the activated and the non-activated alkaline polymerization ofε-caprolactam were studied by DSC. In the latter case, a curve-resolving method was applied to separate the superimposed polymerization and crystallization processes. The counter-ion effect was taken into account in the complexing of the initiator cations by crown compounds.
Energy efficiency measures and the enhancement of investments in renewable energy play important role in sustainable development and lead to advancement of competitiveness of national economies. The increase of renewable energy consumption and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions are significant stages of the process to achieve the main purposes of sustainable development at global and national levels.
In this paper the change in the share of renewable energy in gross final energy consumption and in the greenhouse gas emissions intensity in Hungary between 2004 and 2011 is investigated.
It is demonstrated that the share of the renewable energy in gross inland energy consumption increased during the examined period. The measure and the tendency of the change in Hungary show similarity to the EU 27 average.
The greenhouse gas emissions intensity of energy consumption decreased in Hungary between 2004 and 2011. According to the data, the decrease is the second largest among the European Member States.
In this paper we analyse the trends and developments of energy imports as a percentage of gross inland energy consumption including bunkers in Hungary and the European Union countries between 2000 and 2011. Data show that the average of the energy dependence increased in the EU27 Member States (7.1 percentage points) and in Hungary, too (3.4 percentage points). The energy intensity in Member States is examined as well. According to the data the energy intensity decreased in the majority of the Member States, the average decreased by 16 percent.
The pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus — a quarantine pest — has been monitored since 2003 in Hungary. The present paper gives a short review of the monitoring/survey system and the results obtained.
The change of the number of turnip moth (Scotia segetum Schiff.) females was examined at 65 different light trap stations between 1957 and 1990. There are two generations of the examined species in Hungary, but the individual number of the first generation is low year by year, so we processed only the data of the second generation. Only those generations were examined that had more than 100 samples because of the statistical reliability. Thirty-three light trap stations were suitable for this examination. The joint number of yearly caught male and female individuals and also separately the samples of females were summarised for each observing station. The change of female individual number as a function of total individual number was determined from the coherent pairs of value. The connection can be described by linear function. The proportion of females is 38%. The relative frequency of females was also determined in the function of the individual number. The shown point-mass is similar to the damped vibration known at technical systems. It was established that the female proportion was higher than the average if the individual number is low, but it showed average value when the individual number was high. It can also be established that the female proportion is significantly high in some cases before gradation years.
Theridion impressum is one of the dominant foliage dwelling spider species of maize fields in Hungary. Spider webs were collected from Bt and isogenic maize plots in three successive years. Captured insects in the web were identified. The most frequent prey items were aphids, plant hoppers and beetles. Although the number of captured insects in web samples from isogenic maize was slightly higher than those from Bt maize in the case of almost each insect order, except for two samples (Sternorrhyncha, 2001; Neuroptera, 2002), the differences between Bt and isogenic samples were not significant.
In order to investigate whether some corn
hybrids of various seasonal growing rates (FAO numbers) are damaged by larvae of cotton bollworm,
(Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in different levels, a set of field experiments was conducted at Mezőhegyes, Southeast Hungary, in course of 2003–2004. Phenological stages of corn hybrids and pattern of captures of
moths in pheromone traps were monitored in course of the season. Abundances of larvae of the next generation on developing cobs were also recorded. At harvest, the weight of grains damaged by
larvae, as well as the total weight of grains taken off from cobs were measured for each corn hybrids.At the time of peak flight in 2003, freshly hatched larvae appeared in the cobs of those hybrids which were already flowering (female flower), i.e. reached the silking stage, as in case of DK 391, DK 443 and Maraton (FAO numbers: 300, 380 and 450, respectively), while L
larvae were found in the cobs of Maxima (FAO number: 580), only considerably later, when it reached silking stage. In 2004, however, all hybrids, including Maxima, flowered by the time of peak flight, and L
larvae appeared on cobs of each hybrids without delay.The mean number of larvae was the highest in 2003 in DK 391 (141.5±4.5 larvae / 50 cobs), while DK 443, Maraton and Vilma did not differ significantly from each other (92.0±10.0, 88.5±3.0 and 78.8±3.4 larvae / 50 cobs, respectively). The lowest number of larvae was found in Maxima (34.0±3.0 larvae / 50 cobs). In contrast to this, the highest number of larvae were found on Maxima in 2004, differring significantly from that of DK 391, DK 391 and Maraton, these latter three hybrids housing only negligible low numbers of larvae.The mean weight of damaged grains per cob was the highest in DK 391 (3.5±0.6 gram) and lowest in Maxima (1.1±0.2 gram), differring from each other significantly, in 2003. A reverse result was obtained in 2004, when far the highest weight of damaged grains per cob was found in Maxima (112.2±0.7 gram), while pratically no damage occurred at DK 331, DK 443 and Maraton.The mean weight of all grains per cob was the highest in 2003 in Maraton (111.5±5.3 gram) and the lowest for DK 391 (79.2±4.3 gram), the difference being statistically significant. In 2004, however, no significant differences were found in this respect (values ranged from 162.9±2.8 gram to 192.4±21.0 gram).These results indicate that the abundace of
larvae on cobs and subsequent damage depends on the coincidence of silking of corn and peak capture of moths in pheromone traps, and not on features of the corn hybrid. Differences found in this study among hybrids barely reflect to the above-mentioned coincidence, therefore the level of infestation of the studied hybrids may vary by years and localities, and does not imply an inherent tolerant feature of the hybrids concerned. It is discussed that control measures should be considered to perform without delay in cases whenever such a coincidence is observed.