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George P. Rédei: Encyclopedic Dictionary of Genetics, Genomics, and Proteomics. 2nd Edition, 1392 pages, A John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Publication, Hoboken, NJ, USA 2003

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The larvae of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are largely restricted to the roots of maize as food source, and their feeding damage can cause yield losses. The adults are active flyers in search for pollen sources or for new maize fields to colonise. The D. v. virgifera colonisation of first-year maize fields from adjacent continuous maize fields was studied in a 20 km2 intensive agricultural area in South-Western Hungary between 2008 and 2010. Using non-baited yellow sticky traps the infestation levels of adult D. v. virgifera were compared between six first-year maize fields and seven to 12 adjacent continuous maize fields during a seven week period in July and August in each year. The infestation in the continuous maize fields accounted for more than 60% of the variation in the adult D. v. virgifera captures in the adjacent first-year maize fields indicating that adjacent maize fields are the major source of dispersal into first-year maize and not, or to a lesser extent, the area-wide infestation levels. Therefore, estimating the risks of D. v. virgifera infestations in fields of a maize-rotating farmer can be supported by assessing the infestation levels in neighbouring continuous maize fields.

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Since first detected (Ba∞a, 1993), the western corn rootworm has become one of the main pests of maize in Central Europe. CSALOMON® pheromone traps (sticky panel-LEM, cloak-PAL, etc., Plant Protection Institute, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary) are recommended mainly for detection of western corn rootworm (WCR) (Tóth et al., 2003). In the USA at economic WCR population levels, for field risk assessment, visual yellow sticky (Multigard, Pherocon AM) traps are used. In a region where WCR population has been present only for few years yet and the population increase proceeds, both trap types may be suitable. In order to estimate the correlation between the captures of visual and CSALOMON® pheromone traps, experiments were conducted for three years (1998-2000) to find out whether a useful correlation exists between captures on these two traps. Moderately strong and strong (minimum R=0,77; maximum R=0,87) correlation was found between captures on Multigard and CSALOMON® pheromone traps. At this population level no correlation was found between capture on Multigard traps and next year's adult emergence.

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Both the activated and the non-activated alkaline polymerization ofε-caprolactam were studied by DSC. In the latter case, a curve-resolving method was applied to separate the superimposed polymerization and crystallization processes. The counter-ion effect was taken into account in the complexing of the initiator cations by crown compounds.

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In order to investigate whether some corn (Zea mays) hybrids of various seasonal growing rates (FAO numbers) are damaged by larvae of cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in different levels, a set of field experiments was conducted at Mezőhegyes, Southeast Hungary, in course of 2003–2004. Phenological stages of corn hybrids and pattern of captures of H. armigera moths in pheromone traps were monitored in course of the season. Abundances of larvae of the next generation on developing cobs were also recorded. At harvest, the weight of grains damaged by H. armigera larvae, as well as the total weight of grains taken off from cobs were measured for each corn hybrids.At the time of peak flight in 2003, freshly hatched larvae appeared in the cobs of those hybrids which were already flowering (female flower), i.e. reached the silking stage, as in case of DK 391, DK 443 and Maraton (FAO numbers: 300, 380 and 450, respectively), while L 1 larvae were found in the cobs of Maxima (FAO number: 580), only considerably later, when it reached silking stage. In 2004, however, all hybrids, including Maxima, flowered by the time of peak flight, and L 1 larvae appeared on cobs of each hybrids without delay.The mean number of larvae was the highest in 2003 in DK 391 (141.5±4.5 larvae / 50 cobs), while DK 443, Maraton and Vilma did not differ significantly from each other (92.0±10.0, 88.5±3.0 and 78.8±3.4 larvae / 50 cobs, respectively). The lowest number of larvae was found in Maxima (34.0±3.0 larvae / 50 cobs). In contrast to this, the highest number of larvae were found on Maxima in 2004, differring significantly from that of DK 391, DK 391 and Maraton, these latter three hybrids housing only negligible low numbers of larvae.The mean weight of damaged grains per cob was the highest in DK 391 (3.5±0.6 gram) and lowest in Maxima (1.1±0.2 gram), differring from each other significantly, in 2003. A reverse result was obtained in 2004, when far the highest weight of damaged grains per cob was found in Maxima (112.2±0.7 gram), while pratically no damage occurred at DK 331, DK 443 and Maraton.The mean weight of all grains per cob was the highest in 2003 in Maraton (111.5±5.3 gram) and the lowest for DK 391 (79.2±4.3 gram), the difference being statistically significant. In 2004, however, no significant differences were found in this respect (values ranged from 162.9±2.8 gram to 192.4±21.0 gram).These results indicate that the abundace of H. armigera larvae on cobs and subsequent damage depends on the coincidence of silking of corn and peak capture of moths in pheromone traps, and not on features of the corn hybrid. Differences found in this study among hybrids barely reflect to the above-mentioned coincidence, therefore the level of infestation of the studied hybrids may vary by years and localities, and does not imply an inherent tolerant feature of the hybrids concerned. It is discussed that control measures should be considered to perform without delay in cases whenever such a coincidence is observed.

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The pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus — a quarantine pest — has been monitored since 2003 in Hungary. The present paper gives a short review of the monitoring/survey system and the results obtained.

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Theridion impressum is one of the dominant foliage dwelling spider species of maize fields in Hungary. Spider webs were collected from Bt and isogenic maize plots in three successive years. Captured insects in the web were identified. The most frequent prey items were aphids, plant hoppers and beetles. Although the number of captured insects in web samples from isogenic maize was slightly higher than those from Bt maize in the case of almost each insect order, except for two samples (Sternorrhyncha, 2001; Neuroptera, 2002), the differences between Bt and isogenic samples were not significant.

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The change of the number of turnip moth (Scotia segetum Schiff.) females was examined at 65 different light trap stations between 1957 and 1990. There are two generations of the examined species in Hungary, but the indi­vi­dual number of the first generation is low year by year, so we process­ed only the data of the second generation. Only those generations were examined that had more than 100 samples because of the statistical reliability. Thirty-three light trap stations were suitable for this examination. The joint number of yearly caught male and female individuals and also separately the samples of females were summarised for each observing station. The change of female individual number as a function of total individual number was determined from the coherent pairs of value. The connection can be described by linear function. The proportion of females is 38%. The relative frequency of females was also determined in the function of the individual number. The shown point-mass is similar to the damped vibration known at technical systems. It was established that the female proportion was higher than the average if the individual number is low, but it showed average value when the individual number was high. It can also be established that the female proportion is significantly high in some cases before gradation years.

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